Saturday, March 14, 2020
Summary of Dell Computer Free Online Research Papers Dell Computer is a leader in the e-commerce computer hardware market. It is an established brand that leads personal computer manufacturers in U.S. sales and overall online sales. Its trademark method of selling products to customers, corporate and individual consumers, emanates from the Dell Direct model, a Web-enabled infrastructure that allows customers to customize their PCs and order other products they need or desire. This virtual integration structure eliminates the need to manufacture everything, and instead uses the power of the Internet to share and exchange information with suppliers and vendors to build a truly superior supply chain that keeps inventory turnover low and costs to a minimum (Harrington, 2002). Constantly changing technology directly impacts DellÃ¢â¬â¢s success. The primary method Dell uses in order to achieve and sustain their competitive advantage is a unique, direct to customer business model (Dell, 2007). The Internet is DellÃ¢â¬â¢s key success factor which results in lower costs to customers than other retailers because customers tell Dell exactly what they want and Dell creates products for the consumer without experiencing wasteful resources in production (Breen, 2004). DellÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain works as follows. After a customer places an order, either by phone or through the Internet, Dell processes the order, which takes two to three days, after which it sends the order to one of its manufacturing plants in Austin, Texas. These plants can build, test, and package the product in about eight hours (Kapuscinski et al, 2004). The general rule for production is first in, first out, and Dell typically plans to ship all orders no later than five days after receipt. Since many of DellÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers are located in Southeast Asia, Dell has significantly less time to respond to customers than it takes to transport components from its suppliers to its assembly plants. To compensate for this, Dell requires its suppliers to keep inventory on hand in the Austin plant, referred to as revolvers (for Ã¢â¬Å"revolvingÃ¢â¬ inventory). Revolvers or Supplier logistics Centers (SLCs) are small warehouses located within a few miles of DellÃ¢â¬â¢s assembly plants. Each revolver is shared by several suppliers (Breen, 2004). The inventory in DellÃ¢â¬â¢s revolvers is not owned by Dell. It is owned by suppliers and charged to Dell indirectly through component pricing (Kapuscinski et al, 2004). However, the cost of maintaining inventory in the supply chain is included in the final prices of the computers. Therefore, any reduction in inventory benefits DellÃ¢â¬â¢s customers directly by reducing product prices. Low inventories also lead to higher product quality, because Dell detects any quality problems more quickly than it would with high inventories (Pizinger, 2004). Dell wishes to stay ahead of competitors who adopt a direct-sales approach, and it must be able to reduce supplier inventory to gain significant leverage. Although arguably supply-chain costs include all costs incurred from raw parts to final assembly, Dell concentrates on Dell-specific inventory (that is, parts designed to DellÃ¢â¬â¢s specifications or stored in Dell specific locations, such as its revolvers and assembly plants). Because assembly plants hold inventories for only a few hours, DellÃ¢â¬â¢s primary target, in this project, was the inventory in revolvers (Kapuscinski et al, 2004). Dell holds inventory only for the six to eight hours it travels across the assembly line and for the 18 hours it takes for the completed CPU to be trucked to a merge center in Reno, Nevada, where the unit is bundled with a monitor and shipped to the customer (Harrington, 2002). Dell also works the other end of the supply chain the customer to eliminate the evil of inventory. Essentially, its replacing inventory with information. The company keeps a massive database that tracks the purchasing patterns and budget cycles of its corporate customers, and predicts upgrade purchases by individual repeat consumers, which enables it to forecast demand with about 75% accuracy (Kapuscinski et al, 2004). Three times a day, Dell updates its demand forecast for key suppliers on its extranet portal. When Dell misses a forecast which it does from 5% to 25% of the time and finds itself running out of, say, 15-inch flat screens, it runs a one-week special for 17-inch screens. Its direct-to-the-customer model allows it to shift demand to match what its suppliers can deliver. Supply-chain experts call this demand shaping, and Dell has mastered this competitive weapon, too. But while such tactics have helped Dell to almost eliminate inventory from its balance sheet, its sup pliers cannot claim to have done the same (Solis, 2001). DellÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain management success can be summed up in one idea. Ã¢â¬Å"Supply chain management shortens the cycle between the component, the manufacturer and the end customer. We are allowing them to almost touch each other, (E-commerce)Ã¢â¬ according to Michael Chong, e-business Technology Manager of Dell Computer Corporation. Supply chain management is the effective and efficient movement of materials from suppliers, through a company and into products, which eventually is received by consumers (Dell, 2007). References Breen, Bill. (2004). Living in Dell Time. Fast Company. Retrieved November 3, 2007 from fastcompany.com/magazine/88/dell.html. Dell.com. (2007) Supplier Principles: Supply Chain Management System. Retrieved November 4, 2007 from dell.com/content/topics/global.aspx/corp/sup_prince/en/supply?c=usl=ens=corp Harrington, L. (2002). Industry Week. Retrieved November 3, 2007. The Accelerated Value Chain: Supply chain management just got smarter, faster and more cost-effective, thanks to a groundbreaking alliance between Intel and i2 technologies. Kapuscinski, R., Zhang, R., Carbonneau,P., Moore, R., Reeves, B. (2004) INFORMS Ã¢â¬â Interfaces Inventory Decisions in DellÃ¢â¬â¢s Supply Chain Ã¢â¬â Vol. 34 No.3 May-June 2004. Retrieved November 5, 2007 from tmi.umich.edu/dell.pdf. Pizinger, Michael (2004). Retrieved November 3, 2007, Extending DELLÃ¢â¬â¢s Direct Model to Product Development via Supplier Collaboration Tools, The Management Roundtable. Solis, Adriano O. (2001). SOME SUCCESS STORIES IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT. Retrieved November 3, 2007 from http://utminers.utep.edu/solis/NAPM%20- %20El%20Paso/Criterion%20Articles/Academic%20Advisor%27s%20Corner%20may% 202001.doc Research Papers on Summary of Dell ComputerBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfOpen Architechture a white paperMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Project Managment Office SystemDefinition of Export QuotasGenetic EngineeringNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceTwilight of the UAW
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Apple versus PC - Essay Example With such distinctions being many questions have arisen in regards to which machine is truly superior. Through a consideration of a variety of components of each machine, this essay demonstrates why the Mac truly has higher quality than the PC. When consider computer technology one of the primary considerations that individuals make is in regards to cost. Oftentimes the Mac is derided in relation to the PC because of the significant cost differential between the two machines, with the Apple Macintosh generally costing a few hundred dollars more than the traditional PC. While these are valid complaints, ultimately they prove erroneous when one notes that the MacintoshesÃ¢â¬â¢ hardware warrants the cost differential. A recent study was conducted that compared the top of the line Dell Computer to the Apple Macbook Pro in terms of cost and efficiency. The study indicated that, Dell's Inspiron line doesn't currently offer processing power equaling that of the MacBook Pro. To get a 2.33- GHz Core 2 Duo processor (a 2.4-GHz version isn't available yet), you have to move up to Dell's more expensive XPS M1710 with Vista Home Premium. Once I did that, though, and tricked out the M1710 with only those extras it had to have to compete with the MacBook Pro, I was surprised to see the Dell come in at a whopping $3,459, some $650 more than the Apple product (Finnie). In these regards, the study indicates that when adding the same hardware technology to the PC that the Mac already has included, the Mac demonstrates significantly more value. This demonstrates that while ostensibly the PC is cheaper, in reality the Mac comes with significantly more value and quality. Another major consideration that one makes when considering the effectiveness of computer technology is the computerÃ¢â¬â¢s overall efficiency. Many PC users remain unfamiliar with the intricacies of computer technology and contend that the PC actually is a more efficient machine than the Mac. Still, when examini ng this question more thoroughly one discovers that in reality the Mac is a significantly more quality machine. Consider the parts that are used within the Mac as compared to the PC. A general qualitative investigation demonstrates that the Mac has a sleeker design that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t bend and creek like PC plastic compartments. Another prominent element in terms of efficiency is the operating system. The PC only allows users the option of implementing Windows, while the Mac is equipped to run both Windows and OS X. This difference allows Mac users to tailor the operating system for the specific task, greatly improving computer quality and efficiency. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear then that the Mac is better than the PC in terms of overall efficiency. A final consideration that is made regarding Mac and PCÃ¢â¬â¢s is within the realm of general useability. Oftentimes PC users claim that the Macintosh is an inferior product because it is purposely made more difficult to use as a means of differ entiating itself. In reality, this is an erroneous assumption and that Macintosh is an overall more useable machine. Consider a number of specific different between the computers. One of the major differences between the machines is the fast and effective boot time in the Apple. While having to wait an extra-minute or for a computer to load may seem like an insignificant problem, when this element is
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
A porters 5 forces analysis of Microsoft Corporation - Essay Example The following figure represents computer OS market share. Threat of new entrants is extremely high in the computer software industry. Faster product developments and technological innovations allow a new entrant to easily capture the market. The current industry trends indicate that people are highly attracted towards new software developments as they always try to replace the existing technology with more improved ones. It is obvious that a number of new market players have entered the software industry over the last two decades. However, higher entry costs reduce the threat of new market entrants to some extent. Nowadays, majority of the governments invests heavily in research and developments. Therefore, new entrants are overcoming the fund deficiency issue. Availability of substitutes raises potential threats to the Microsoft Corporation. Studies show that software design ideas are widely copied and most of the people and business are interested to use pirated software versions. According to Claburn (2011), it is expected that millions of people are using pirated Microsoft operating systems. Majority of the duplicated software provide full features to their users exactly as the original software do. Since such pirated or duplicated software are easily available at cheaper costs, many of the users are not interested to buy an original Microsoft version. Even though governments give great emphasis on the enforcement of intellectual property laws, software piracy and duplication cannot be prevented completely. While evaluating the marketing activities of Microsoft Corporation, it is clear that the firm exercises great control over its buyers (Levy, 2005). It is a known fact that Microsoft products are of supreme quality and thereby have a well market reputation. Furthermore, they are branded products. Hence, buyers
Friday, January 31, 2020
The effects of video games on children Essay Nowadays, game is so popular that everybody can see its appearances everywhere easily. There are a lot of type of game have been invented such as cosule game, Actually, video games have become a part of childrens life for the past few decades, because they are so convenient that children can play them whenever and wherever to spend time. There are a lot of opinions about effects of video game on our future generation. In some study, video games can be considered the second nature of the modern children, and that virtual world partly reflects the real world. Through that, children can come up and learn more knowledge about the real word. However, video games can also cause a lot of negative effects on children if they are addicted to those. Therefore, most people agree that playing too many video games does more harm than good. The bad effect of game Drifting back to the history of video game, it all started when Atari came up with its first gaming console that included a very simple game of tennis. At that time, the controller had just one stick and one button to play with. Now, we are having huge collection of gaming system with many different types of consoles available in the market with very complex games that requires controllers with two or more sticks and a variety of buttons. Every year, all gaming company makes a race for introducing a new edition or updating better quality for their production. Most people suppose that playing video game causes a lot of negative effects. Video games Ã¢â¬â a cause of violence and aggression are one of those and mainly mentioned. Video games are very variety of kinds, but it seems that the violent games are dominant because they attract more children than others. Furthermore, in some surveys, there are many violent games that allow the children to play arm bearing characters who can kill anyone that they want, steal cars, and commit many different kinds of crime, such as Mortal Combat, Marvel vs. Capcom, and Doom. They all are very interactive in the violence of slaughtering the opponent (1). In reality, although the video game producers put signs like Real-life violence and Violence level not recommended for children under age of 12 on their box covers, sometimes parents seem to ignore those warnings and let their children play the games that they like (2). Moreover, in some modern violent games, the producers want to attract more children by performing the actions of characters as elaborate maneuver when they get killed. For example, in Half-Life, when a character is killed by others, a bloody and gory scene displays in detail on the screen. What will happen if children play those day by day? How will those affect the naive minds of children? As everyone knows, the answer is that children will become violent and aggressive. Indeed, many studies seem to indicate that violent video games may be related to aggressive behavior. The children who often play more violent games will tend to be at odds with somebody and like fighting and killing. They tend to act in their real life as if they saw and experienced in games. In another aspect, playing too many video games is also the cause which makes children addicted. In a recent study of children in their early teens, the researchers found that almost a third played video games daily, and that 7% played for at least 30 hours a week (3). According to these statistical figures, it is really reasonable to conclude that children today are addicted to video games, and the number of those will increase more in the future. Addicting to video games can make children socially isolated. With the development of science and technology at present, it is so convenient that children can play video games everywhere from large devices, such as computers, laptops, and play stations, to small portable devices, such as DS, and XboxÃ¢â¬ ¦ With those, children can spend hours in playing without resting. Meanwhile, they may spend less time or even ignore in other activities such as doing homework, reading books, sports, and interacting with the family and friends. As a result, children will become lazy and passive, and they find it hard to integrate into the real life. Finally, video games may also have bad effects on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health, especially obesity and eyesight problems. When children are addicted to video games, they tend give them foremost priority. This takes the children away from their other physical activities and can have many health-related problems for the children, as they can get obese if they dont exercise and stay home playing video games. Many studies have also showed that spending hours more time playing videogames in front of television screens than playing real and actual sports that involve physical exercise can cause children to experience many of the same symptoms seen in computer vision syndrome in adults. Moreover, extensive viewing of the game screen can lead to eye discomfort, fatigue, blurry vision and headaches (4). As a result, the number of children who have eyesight problems, such as near-sighted, far-sighted, and astigmatismÃ¢â¬ ¦ is increasing. This is perhaps the worst negative effect that videogames can have on children. On the contrary, as many people confirm, one of the most positive effects of video games is increasing the dexterity and agility of a child and improving their hand-eye coordination (5). The new modern video games that are coming out are extremely complex, and they involve the movement of many different kinds of sticks and buttons on the controllers. These can be very good for children as they learn to make fast connections between what they see and what their hands and fingers are doing. These also allow them to think quickly and improve their reflexes. For example, in shooting games, in some cases, the character may be running and shooting at the same time. This requires the children to keep track of the position of the character, where he or she is heading, the speed, where the gun is aiming, and so on. This process requires a great deal of hand-eye coordination and visual-spatial ability to be successful. Therefore, we find that playing video games can have many different effects, both positive as well as negative on children. Even though the children can have benefits by increasing their dexterity and improving their reflexes, the costs of them, like losing their physical exercise, social activities, and homework, declining health, as well as becoming violent, are too much. Overall, it is important that the parents consider this problem seriously and enforce certain rules and regulations that can limit and control the time of playing video games for their children. Parents also should encourage their children to take part in other physical exercise, sports, as well as social activities that can take children away from video games. References: (1), (2), and (3) according to Video Games: A Cause of Violence and Aggression Grace Shin Submitted by Serendip Update on Fri, 01/04/2008 http://serendip. brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1723 (4) according to Playing Video Games May Cause Eyestrain. Encourage Safe Game Play Guidelines for Your Child By Troy Bedinghaus, O. D. , About. com Guide Updated February 19, 2008 http://webcache. googleusercontent. com/search? q=cache:INT8Liv76l4J:vision. about. com/od/childrensvision/qt/Video_Games. htm+video+games+affect+eyesightcd=1hl=enct=clnkgl=ussource=www. google. com (5) according to Positive Effects of Video Gaming By R. L. Cultrona, eHow Contributor http://www. ehow. com/about_5370127_positive-effects-video-gaming. html.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Employability Skills: An Update This project has been funded at least in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education under Contract No. ED-99-CO-0013. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Digests may be freely reproduced and are available at http://ericacve.org/fulltext.asp. What skills do employers want? How do these skills match those that youth and adults are developing through their school and work experiences? How can education and training programs prepare individuals to enter a rapidly changing workplace? These and other questions are examined in this Digest that explores skills currently needed for employment. Since 1986 the authors of no fewer than six ERIC Digests and one Trends and Issues Alert have sifted through an increasingly prolific literature base to investigate the evolving topic of employability skills. The dual challenges of competing in a world market and rapid technological advancements have necessitated a redesign of the workplace into an innovative work environment known as the high-performance workplace. This environment requires a behavior and orientation toward work that go beyond step-by-step task performance. It expects workers at all levels to solve problems, create ways to improve the methods they use, and engage effectively with their coworkers (Bailey 1997; Packer 1998). Knowledge workers who demonstrate this highly skilled, adaptive blend of technical and human relations ability are recognized by employers as their primary competitive edge. Job-specific technical skills in a given field are no longer sufficient as employers scramble to fill an increasing number of interdependent jobs (Askov and Gordon 1999; Murnane and Levy 1996). Many U.S. and international authors point out the importance of continuously developing skills beyond those required for a specific job, and they identify employability skills that enable individuals to prove their value to an organization as the key to job survival. The volume of major studies undertaken in the past 2 decades to identify and describe employability skills underscores their criticality. (For a listing of some of these authors, organizations, and studies, see the references.) There are many definitions of the phrase employability skills. The following updated definition is representative of a synthesis of definitions as they have evolved over time: Employability skills are transferable core skill groups that represent essential functional and enabling knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by the 21st century workplace.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Do you agree with the view that by 1940 the main obstacle to Indian independence was not British imperialism but divisions within India? Many people believe that in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s most of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s problems involving independence was to do with divisions within India rather than British imperialism. In this essay I will be looking at both points of view and finally giving my opinion. I will be using three sources also to help me show both sides of the story. I will also be using my further knowledge to add a wider range of knowledge.Source 15 is a statement made by Viceroy Linlithgow during discussions with Muhammad Ali Jinnah in August 1940, concerning arrangements for the wartime administration of India. In this source he is both for and against the view of the question. Ã¢â¬Å"His MajestyÃ¢â¬â¢s Government could not contemplate transfer of their present responsibilities for the peace and welfare of India to any system of GovernmentÃ¢â¬ . This is suggesting that England canÃ¢â¬â¢t even imagine giving any real power to India. Which means England is withholding any peace for India by not giving them any power.England are also holding back any welfare for India by keeping all the power. However, the Viceroy also says afterwards, Ã¢â¬Å"Whose authority is directly denied by large and powerful elements in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s national lifeÃ¢â¬ . This quote is saying that divisions within India are slowing down the progression of gaining power for India. Even EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s power over India is being disrupted by the divisions within India. If a specialist governing country is struggling to stay in control how is an inexperienced country going to handle one of the largest countries in the world?Linlithgow made the August offer in 1940; along with Jinnah they discussed a whole range of issues regarding India and the war. The Viceroy did make an effort to involve the Muslim community with the proposals in the august offer as well. One of the proposals was Ã¢â¬Å"an assurance that the government would not adapt any new constitution without the prior approval of Muslim IndiaÃ¢â¬ . This shows that the Viceroy tried to prevent divisions within India. Source 16 is a lot more one sided compared to source 15. Source 16 mainly believes that it is British imperialism that is preventing Indian Independence.This source is from W. O. Simpson, from Ã¢â¬Ëchanging horizonsÃ¢â¬â¢, which was published in 1986. One of the most obvious quotes backing up the hatred towards British Imperialism is, Ã¢â¬Å"The idea, and the Government of India Act that emerged on 1935, was strongly opposed by one faction in the Conservative Party, which formed itself into the Imperial Defence League. Ã¢â¬ This Defence League tried to prevent the Act being passed but it was unsuccessful in its efforts, and the Act was passed. Ã¢â¬Å"The Act was attacked both in Britain for going too farÃ¢â¬ .If Britain didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go as far as they did with the act they would h ave had a more successful reign. In this source there is a quote that suggests that divisions within India that was stopping Indian Independence. Ã¢â¬Å"in India for not going far enoughÃ¢â¬ . This quote suggests that India didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe the Act wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taken out as much as they would have liked. Round table conferences did prove that congress didnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak for all of India, and due to the minority of the Muslims in India the 1937 elections were very nerve racking for the Muslims.If Congress came into power they would have been in a very bad situation. The Muslim League needed to win over all of the Muslims and make sure the trials can become fair. Source 17 is much like source 15 because they a both fairly even sided, in what they say. This source is from Rosemary Rees, India 1900-47, published in 2006. It mentions the faults of both British Imperialism and the Divisions between India. Ã¢â¬Å"If only Congress could, in, fact, speak for all main elements in Ind iaÃ¢â¬â¢s national life then, however advanced their demands our problem would have been in many respects, far easierÃ¢â¬ .This quote is strongly suggesting that the division in India is preventing the independence. The fact that England canÃ¢â¬â¢t get a straight answer from India is making England less confident in giving them independence. They had Congress saying they spoke for the whole of India and they had the Muslim League saying that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t and because they are the minority in India they should get an equal say in matters so the Congress doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just make lives for the Hindus better and forget about the Muslims. However, Churchill was adamant that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to give India up.He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even think about it. He knew that he wanted to keep it, therefore in his mind he is going to keep it, no matter what. In source 17 he strongly backs this statement up in saying Ã¢â¬Å"We mean to hold our own. I have not become the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s first m inister in order to preside over liquidation of the British Empire. Ã¢â¬ This quote just shows how incredibly stubborn Churchill was in his views of handing over IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s independence. It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what was happening around him or what was happening in India, India was EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s and he intended it to stay that way.All of these sources mention both points, in different amounts. I personally believe that it was mainly down to British imperialism that prevented India to gain independence. In the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s India found it hard to find independence at all. Though I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe it was all down to England. The fact that India couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t give an answer that related to both Muslims and Hindus meant that England lost trust in them. Gandhi was trying to claim that he was speaking for the whole country, whilst Muslims were pleading not to listen to him. It was all very confusing for the English.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Independent executive agencies of the U.S. federal government are those that, while technically part of the executive branch, are self-governed and not directly controlled by the President. Among other duties, these independent agencies and commissions are responsible for the vitally important federal rulemaking process. In general, independent agencies are tasked with administering laws and federal regulations that apply to specific areas such as the environment, social security, homeland security, education, and veteran affairs. Responsibilities and the Chain of Command Expected to be experts in the areas they manage, most independent agencies are headed by a presidentially-appointed board or commission, while a few, such as the EPA, are headed by a single presidentially-appointed administrator or director. Falling within the executive branch of government, independent agencies are overseen by Congress, but operate with more autonomy than federal agencies headed by Cabinet members such as the Departments of State or Treasury which must report directly to the president. While independent agencies do not answer directly to the president, their department heads are appointed by the president, with the approval of the Senate. However, unlike the department heads of executive branch agencies, such as those making up the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabinet, who can be removed simply because of their political party affiliation, heads of independent executive agencies may be removed only in cases of poor performance or unethical activities. In addition, the organizational structure independent executive agencies allows them to create their own rules and performance standards, deal with conflicts, and discipline employees who violate agency regulations.Ã Ã Creation of Independent Executive Agencies For the first 73 years of its history, the young American republic operated with only four government agencies: the Departments of War, State, Navy, and Treasury, and the Office of the Attorney General. As more territories gained statehood and the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s population grew, the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for more services and protections from the government grew as well. Facing these new government responsibilities, Congress created the Department of the Interior in 1849, the Department of Justice in 1870, and the Post Office Department (now the U.S. Postal Service) in 1872. The end of the Civil War in 1865 ushered in a tremendous growth of business and industry in America. Seeing a need to ensure fair and ethical competition and control fees, Congress began creating independent economic regulatory agencies or Ã¢â¬Å"commissions.Ã¢â¬ The first of these, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), was created in 1887 to regulate the railroad (and later the trucking) industries to ensure fair rates and competition and to prevent rate discrimination. Farmers and merchants had complained to lawmakers that railroads were charging them exorbitant fees to carry their goods to market.Ã Congress eventually abolished the ICC in 1995, dividing its powers and duties among new, more tightly defined commissions. Modern independent regulatory commissions patterned after the ICC include the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Independent Executive Agencies Today Today, independent executive regulatory agencies and commissions are responsible for creating the many federal regulations intended to enforce the laws passed by Congress. For example, the Federal Trade Commission creates regulations to implement and enforce a wide variety of consumer protection laws such as the Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act, the Truth in Lending Act, and the Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act. Most independent regulatory agencies have the authority to conduct investigations, impose fines or other civil penalties, and otherwise, limit the activities of parties proven to be in violation of federal regulations. For example, the Federal Trade Commission often halts deceptive advertising practices and forces business to issue refunds to consumers. Their general independence from politically motivated interference or influence gives the regulatory agencies the flexibility to respond rapidly to complex cases of abusive activities. What Sets Independent Executive Agencies Apart? Independent agencies differ from the other executive branch departments and agencies mainly in their makeup, function, and the degree to which they are controlled by the president. Unlike most executive branch agencies which are overseen by a single secretary, administrator, or director appointed by the president, independent agencies are usually controlled by a commission or board made up of from five to seven people who share power equally. While the commission or board members are appointed by the president with the approval of the Senate, they typically serve staggered terms, often lasting longer than a four-year presidential term. As a result, the same president will rarely get to appoint all of the commissioners of any given independent agency. In addition, federal statutes limit the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s authority to remove commissioners to cases of incapacity, neglect of duty, malfeasance, or Ã¢â¬Å"other good cause.Ã¢â¬ Commissioners of independent agencies cannot be removed based simply on their political party affiliation. In fact, most independent agencies are required by law to have aÃ bipartisan membership of their commissions or boards, thus preventing the president from filling vacancies exclusively with members of their own political party. In contrast, the president has the power remove the individual secretaries, administrators, or directors of the regular executive agencies at will and without showing cause. Under Article 1, Section 6, Clause 2 of the Constitution, members of Congress cannot serve on the commissions or boards of independent agencies during their terms in office. Agency Examples A few examples of hundreds of independent executive federal agencies not already mentioned include: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): The CIA provides intelligence regarding potential threats to national security to the president and senior U.S. policymakers.Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC): Protects the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death from a vast array of consumer products.Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board: Oversees the nuclear weapons complex operated by the U.S. Department of Energy.Federal Communications Commission (FCC): Regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.Federal Election Commission (FEC): Administers and enforces the campaign finance laws in the United States.Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Administers the national flood insurance and disaster relief programs. Works with first responders to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all forms of hazards.Federal Reserve Board of Governors: Functions as the central bank of the United States. The Federal Reserve System (the Ã¢â¬Å"FEDÃ¢â¬ ) oversees the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s monetary and credit policy and works ensure the safety and stability of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s banking and financial system.