Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Social Classes Of The 19th Century Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Social Classes Of The 19th Century - Essay Example Social classes with more force generally subsidiary classes with less force. Social classes with a huge deal of power are mostly examined as elites, no less than inside their own communities. Throughout the 19th century, the middle class, too called the classes' bourgeoisie, cultivate from the groups of 18th century profitable and industrial entrepreneurs. At the similar time, many fresh occupations were formed which principally used mind skills somewhat than substantial labor; the amount of persons and families in these careers burst in number, generating a considerable, and ultimately prevailing, middle class. Marxism describes the bourgeoisie as the social class which attains revenues from ownership or business in capital benefit, or from profitable actions such as the purchasing and selling of goods, wares and services. Throughout the 19th century, the inferior, or working, class urbanized from the groups of 18th century customary rural farmers and laborers. At the similar time, some innovative professions were shaped which chiefly used material labor somewhat than mental skills; the number of individuals and families in these fields burst in number, creating an extensive lower class. The lower class was collected principally of workers in extractive, developing, and service industries, which were needy on wages and who chiefly, used physical abilities. The lower class was separated into professional sub-groupings of extremely skilled handcrafters, semi-skilled workforce, and unskillful laborers. Differences Between The Bourgeoisies And The Working Class Of The 19th Century According to 1Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) the configuration of class-awareness is by no means mechanical, as the alertness of social stratification might be only faintly formed or might be overshadowed by other fundamentals in social understanding. This means that we can locate out so far social stratification supported on economic relationships; the dissimilarities connecting class, status and command circumstances, and the method professions have been used to classify strata - the thoughts of individuality and measures. Geographical Mobility According to 2Weber two major social classes beneath capitalism are Class Who They Are And Their Property The petit bourgeoisie Those who own small businesses and are minor employers The manual working class Those who own nothing and have to sell their labour in order to live. Bourgeoisie and proletariat or the Working Class were 3Karl Marx's (1818-1883) own stipulations for the two classes he experimented in the industrialized society, which was all around him. 4"Our epoch, the epoch of the Bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." Work Orientation Marx measured that the powerful disagreement among the bourgeoisie and the proletariat would explode into a growing by the proletariat alongside their opponents. This would, Marx measured, be the predictable outcome of the progress in society which he could see occurring. Temporary workers,

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Fundamentals Aspects That Shaped the Great Mind of Plato Essay Example for Free

The Fundamentals Aspects That Shaped the Great Mind of Plato Essay The importance of understanding concepts and analyzing the true meaning of words capture the human mind to develop philosophical thinking, so men can determine what they know about the world. A particularly exciting aspect of the human mind has always been intrigued in understanding reality, and Plato was fascinated with the abstract and theoretical principles of what constitutes reality. To Plato, ideas or conceptual forms were essential realities; when we refer to justice or beauty, it is essential to analyze the real meaning of the words to understand the form. Plato developed a whole philosophy in trying to examine how the human mind arrives to knowledge. Plato was a remarkable thinker and writer, and his system of thought and metaphysics have strongly impacted many societies. A great mind like Plato’s is the result of a sequence of experiences and historical events, the impact of certain figures in society and the combination of a great intellect. The aspects that shaped Plato’s ideas were: first the society of Sparta and the deceitfulness of the Athenian democracy, and second the influence of philosophers like Socrates, Phytagoras, Parmenides and others; the synthesis of these aspects is revealed thought out his beliefs and works. . One of the most crucial aspects in Plato’s philosophy is his Utopia. There are central elements that shaped Plato’s perception of what a perfect state should constitute of; therefore, it is vital to analyze the historical context of Plato’s life. Plato was born in 428-7 B.C., in the early years of the Peloponnesian War. After Athens’s defeat in the war, antidemocratic sympathizers brought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, and Plato was related to various people who were concerned about the new rule. At a young age, it is possible that Plato could have blame Athens’ defeat to democracy1 (Russell,105). Plato came from one of the â€Å"wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens† (Annas, 18). He was a student of Socrates, for whom he felt a tremendous affection; Socrates was found guilty in corrupting the youth and believing in other gods and was put to death by the Athenian democracy. Plato showed in many of his early Dialogues th e figure of Socrates as the philosopher who gave enlightenment to the citizens of Athens because his knowledge relied on logic and reason; for example, in the dialectic development of the idea of piety in the Euthyphro, Socrates emphasized the exercise of reason in analyzing the fallacies of his opponent’s arguments. The irony of this dialogue is that Socrates is charged of impiety, and he proved to know more about piety than his opponent. It is not surprising that Plato will favor Sparta in his Utopia because the Athenian democracy is responsible for Socrates’ death. In Plato’s works, Socrates is in the highest level of intellect and ethics, and in the dialogue Crito Socrates is the perfect example of what an ethical position should be: â€Å"The view that the citizen who has agreed to live in a state must always obey the laws of the state, or else persuade the state to change its laws, or leave the state† (Crito 51bc-52a-d); then Socrates affirmed: one must not even do wrong when one is wronged, which most people regard as the natural course. Socrates represents the great martyr and philosopher who is willing to act in name of justice besides of the circumstances. He would prefer to die rather than to act unjustly. Plato established most of his highest ethical values throug h Socrates’ voice in the Dialogues. It is possible to assume that Plato could have felt a great loss after Socrates’ death, and his resentment towards Athens influenced him to see Sparta as a better society. Plato will also favor Sparta’s educational and social reforms in his works. In Plato’s Utopia, the Republic, the first dialogues near to the end of Book V, consists of the elements necessary to construct an ideal state. Plato introduces us to three classes: the common people, the soldiers, and the guardians. Since the guardians have political power, Plato is concerned in how the guardians will develop their roles in the most appropriate way, so education is essential in the role of the guardians. There are many similarities in what Plato suggests about the guardians’ education to the one provided in Sparta. For example; Plato explains that education is divided in two areas: music and gymnastics. In Platos’s Utopia, it is important to encourage a type of education that stimulates the mental and physical training of the guardians to encourage them to die in battle if it is necessary. This is similar to Sparta’s main interest of education to convert yo ung men into warrior machines. Courage and good behavior are the characteristics to be promoted in the Republic. It seems to be that there is a â€Å"rigid censorship† over the literature that young men have access in the Republic; for example, mother and nurses are to tell their children only â€Å"authorized stories.† Homer and Hesiod are not part of the education because they provide examples of gods behaving badly, and it cannot be taught that evil things come from gods2 (Rusell 109). It is possible to assume that there are elements in Homer and Hesiod that will make the readers develop a fear of dead, and in his Utopia it is unacceptable to stimulate the fear of death in young soldiers because the main purpose is to encourage men to die in battle. In the Republic, education seems to aim only at the functional level of the military, and it tries to discourage men to question about the gods’ evil and erroneous actions because these factors will distract them form protecting the state. In Sp arta, the Lycurgan reforms’ main objective of education was to build strong soldiers, and the stimulation of cultural and scientific education was not on the picture. For example, at the age of seven, children were sent to schools where they were subject to a very strict training; they were taught to steal and if they were caught they were punished but not because of the action but because of their stupidity. Plato also proposes a system of communism for the guardians and possible to the soldiers, these men are supposed to have a simple way of living like simple houses, food, and none private property beyond of what is required. Gold and silver are forbidden. If we look at the Spartan society much of this is the same. For example, none Spartan citizen should be â€Å"destitute, and none should be rich,† and Spartans were expected to live on the procedure of theirs lot, and they could not own gold or silver. Sparta impacted many Greeks through the creation of the â€Å"myth† of a perfect state, and this is reflected in Plato’s political theory. The admiration of Sparta seemed bizarre especially during Lycurgus’s reforms. Lycurgus is thought to be a â€Å"mystical person,† whose origin was Arcadian and his name meant â€Å"wolf-repeller.† During this time, the Spartan constitution attributed to Lycargus seemed to have shaped the society in order to pursuit war and encourage its citizens to sacrifice everything in the battles. It is hard to understand that Sparta could have played an important part in what Greece have contributed to the civilization, but certainly many greeks were inspired and attracted to the simplicity of this state as Bury explains: A stranger from Athens or Miletus in the fifth century visiting the straggling villages which formed her unwalled unpretentious city must have had a feeling of being transported into an age of long past, when men were braver, better, and simpler, unspoiled by wealth, undisturbed by ideas. To a philosopher, like Plato, speculating in political science, the Spartan state seemed the nearest approach to the ideal†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Bury, 141). In understanding Plato’s Utopia we can see that there is so much resemble to Sparta because Sparta represented the opposite of Athens, and it appealed to Plato in many ways like the social organization and the education. Plato was very attracted by the stability of that state; for example, the Spartan constitution remained unchanged for centuries. In the first books I-V of the Republic, justice become very important for Plato; for example, the guardians exert a great amount of power because they represented the wisest group in the community, so decisions are taken by the wiser because they will know was good and best for the people and â€Å"injustice would only occur,† according to Plato’s theory, â€Å"if there were men in other classes who were wiser than some of the guardians† (Russell, 114). And this is the reason why Plato proposes the stratification and deprivation of citizens, but the question is very complicated in defining the science of power, g overnment, and politics. It seems very just to give the power to the wisest man to make decisions, but how do we determine who is the wisest and most important if that person would use his wisdom in the interest of the state. In understanding how to rule a community the ethical ideal is very important. As Plato explains, justice consists of men doing their jobs, as the doctor will pursuit to cure the sick, but the problem is how men decide what their jobs should be or what is their function in an active society in terms of utility. Men have to decide what they want to work on and fulfill the skill that is required on that job, but the problem is whether men should decide their jobs based on their tastes or based on the state’s judgment of the aptitudes of every individual, and the question is who has the strongest ethical ideal to decide that: the individual or the government? For Plato, the purpose of the government is essential in determining what a man job should be, but this involves many difficulties in making the adequate choice because there is none assurance that the government will make the right decision. The problem is that even though the rulers are philosophers, there is not room for innovation, as Russell says â€Å"a philosopher is to be, for all the time, a man who understands and agrees with Plato.† The dilemma is that philosophers are not encouraged to think beyond Plato’s ideals. This example of the government been in charge of determining men’s aptitudes and their jobs takes us back to the organization in Sparta. The Utopia perceived by Plato was strongly influenced by Sparta, but a Sparta that is more mythical than real and that exists only in Plato’s ideals. Certainly the situation in Athens, the democracy that he disapproved so much, and the unethical action in convicting Socrates forced Plato into many struggles with his subconscious mind. This influenced Plato to see in Sparta the possibility to create a Utopia in his mind but certainly one with many defective aspects. Plato’s profoundest and original ideas resulted from the attempt to solve problems by his predecessors. Aristotle speaks of Plato’s ideas as â€Å"resembling the Pythagorean, but with certain features of its own† in the first book of Metaphysics. The philosophical influences of that time shaped many of Plato’s ideas. The Heracletian view, that proposes that the world is in constant flux and cannot be the object of knowledge, appealed so much to Plato that he decided to approach Socrates on this matter. Socrates at that time was concern with ethics and was seeking the universals and their definitions. The idea of Heracletian and the image of Socrates as the philosopher is shown in many of Plato’s dialogues. The Dialogues dealt with the search of definitions and abstract ideas. Plato’s main inspiration was Socrates; for example, in the majority of the Dialogues, Socrates always take the leading position, even in the Theaetetus and Philebus which were written in Plato’s maturity4( Socrates influenced Plato with the concern of ethical problems in the society, and this explained why â€Å" The Good† dominated on Plato’s thought; â€Å"no evil can happen to a goo d man, either in life or after death†( Dialogues, Apology). Plato derived many ideas from Pythagoras especially the â€Å"Orphic elements† of his philosophy such as; the religious ideas like the belief of immortality, his passion for mathematics, and eternal truth. Plato found very appealing Socrates’ idea of universal definitions; but since universals could have no application in a world subject to the â€Å"Heraclitean flux,† he needed to test whether Socrates was right or not. If Socrates was right, there would have to be realities outside the world of the â€Å"ordinary sensible experience.† This leads Plato to consider the following question: was there any evidence for the existence of ‘such changeless truths’? If they exist, how could we have any knowledge of their nature? For Plato, it was possible the existence of a world of eternal forms, but he needed mathematical truth to prove this. Through Pythagoras’s discovery of application of music as regarded by Pythagoreans as the prime cause of order and harmonia in the universe; Plato found an example of the existence of truth outside the empirical world. Another example is that in the case of the statement that the triangle consists of three straight lines is true, but is not true for a triangle draw by hand because by definition â€Å" a line has length but no breadth and is therefore invisible† ( It follows that the triangle of experiences only approximate to the form of truth, and Plato embraced this idea. Plato perceived that ideas like justice or love or beauty have an invisible form; for example, in the perception of beauty one could see a beautiful sculpture but this only approximates to the eternal form of beauty. Clearly â€Å"the modern explanation of mathematical truth as analytical or tautologous was not possible† ( in the minds of Plato and Phytagoras because then the universals of a form could not have exist in the idea of immortality. Another greatest influence on Plato was Parmenides, and from him Plato derived the idea that reality is eternal and timeless and that on â€Å"logical grounds, all changes must be illusory† (Russell, 105). All the ideas of these Greek philosophers combined all together lead to Plato’s belief that â€Å"knowledge could not be derived from the senses, but only achieved by the intellect† (Cantor, 12). In Plato’s theory of knowledge, he concluded that reality is pure idea and that we know it by defining our concepts trough reason and critical thinking. The middle of the Republic Book V to Book VII concentrated on the philosophy and the ideals of forms: Until philosophers are kings, or the kings or the princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy,and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner nature who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from these evils-no, nor the human race, as I believe- and then only will this our State have a possibility of life and behold the light of day. (Plato, Republic, Book V). Trough this passage we can see the combination of Parmenides and Pythagoras thoughts produced a doctrine which was felt to satisfy the intellect and the religious emotions3 ( Russell, 120). In understanding what Plato meant by knowledge and opinion, we have to look at Par emenides. Paremenides stated that an individual who has knowledge has knowledge of something that exists, and for what does not exist is nothing. It is possible to assume that knowledge cannot be mistaken because it exists as a pure form, and opinion can be mistaken because opinion cannot be of what is not because if it was then it would be knowledge. Plato also suggested that things have opposite characters; for example, what is just can be in some respects unjust. It is self contradictory to assume that a thing can be just and unjust at the same time, and so particular things have to be accepted as not real; as Heraclitus mentioned: â€Å"we step and do not step into the same rivers; we are and are not.† Particular things are not the forms because they are concerned with opinion, and knowledge is the only concerned with the actual form. According to Plato, opinion is part of the world of senses and knowledge is part of the eternal world; therefore, perfect. Another important aspect of the theory is the fact that is â€Å"partly logic and partly metaphysical†; for example, if we look at a table, we would ask ourselves what is a table? A table is just the structure of a certain material like wood, plastic, or metal in a particular form but without a form, it would only be a shapeless material. For the table to come into existence there has to be the idea of a table which gives its shape. We can say that the physical world has no form unless it is shaped by an idea. In Plato’s metaphysics the presence of Heraclitus shaped his thoughts. Plato agreed with Heraclitus in the point that when the world is experienced trough the senses the reality is constantly changing; however, he took this to a step further and believed that there has to exist a reality that can be known through reason and this reality is not in change. In the last book of the Republic Plato dealt with the allegory of the cave and the influenced on Pythagoras is there. In the allegory, men live in a cave and in a world of shadows in which they are inevitable force to regard them as real, until a man is able to escape. He becomes aware of the reality, and this man that has discovered the real world outside the cave will represent the kind of philosopher who will fit best to become the guardian, and his duty is to inform and convince the others in the cave about the real things he saw outside, so they can save their souls. Plato and Pythagoras held that knowledge is necessary for the salvation of the soul, and this idea explains why is important that the man who has discovered the world outside the cave help the others to save their souls from their ignorance. The men in the cave would mock him at the beginning because they still live in a world of ignorance. Plato also reinforces the importance of becoming a philosopher and how knowledge will lead to the ‘intellectual world in the perception of the absolute good (White 91).† The mysticism of Plato’s theory leads to some conflicts in which reality is perfectly good and in other to perceive reality is to perceive good, but what exactly he meant by good? The idea of science and truth in good still seems to be more influenced by the mysticism of some philosophers rather than objectivism. In Plato’s theory of forms the presence of many philosophers is almost in every aspect of what he believes to be knowledge; his theory is the combination of different mechanisms extracted from different philosophers that allowed Plato to arrive at what is called the theory of forms. It is impossible to deny that Plato’s theory of forms represented the beginning of a philosophical system that had and continue to impact the world. Platonism is a very important philosophical system that has intrigued many thinkers, and in order to understand this philosophy is important to understand the philosophers who influenced Plato. Plato’s ideas and beliefs gave the foundation of what we called philosophy, and Plato’s love for wisdom and the necessity to know where the human mind gets its ideas was his most profound inspiration; however, it is difficult to ignore the various elements that define his ideas. The historical circumstances in which Plato lived influenced some of his thoughts especially his perception of a Utopia. In the Republic, there are many ideas that show significant similarities to the organization of the Spartan society. Plato was influenced by many philosophers, and the one that he regarded as a true inspiration was Socrates, and this leads us to follow his indignation to democracy in Athens. There were other figures that impacted Plato’s life and thoughts like Pythagoras, Parmenides, and Heraclitus, and they allowed Plato to come down with many of his ideas. Plato has been regarded as the eminent philosopher and has been admired by many societies, but in order to praise him is necessary to understand what could have influenced him. Plato will always remain a very interested and enigmatic figure that will continue to intrigue society because there has not been any other philosophical thought that has influenced so much our society.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay on Fantasies and Realities in Red Badge Of Courage

Fantasies and Realities in The Red Badge Of Courage      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      In The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane the main character, Henry Fleming, thought he understood the war between the North and the South.   However, his understanding came â€Å"from his knowledge of fairy tales and mythology†(Gibson 21).   Henry thought that he was like the heroes that he read about in these stories.   He soon learned that real war was very different from his imaginative expectations.   Crane took Henry’s fantasies and contrasted them with the realities of the war to develop this main character into a mature person.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Henry spent his early life on a farm in Virginia.   Henry’s perception of the world was shaped almost entirely by the books his mother gave him to read.   After the war started, â€Å"the newspapers carried accounts of great battles, in which the North was victor.   Almost every day the newspapers printed accounts of decisive victory†(Walcutt),   Henry’s mother was reluctant to let her son leave home and go South to do battle against the Confederate Army.   She knew that Henry’s vision of war was not what war is really like.   She tried to get Henry to change his mind about joining the army, but she was unsuccessful because â€Å"tales of ‘the war in his own country’ inevitably began to move him.   They many not be distinctly Homeric, but there seemed to be much glory in them’†(Cody 122).   Henry â€Å"is motivated† by his â€Å"heroic expectations of ‘gre at things’†(Colvert 97) as well as his keen interest and curiosity about what he views as the elements of war.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Henry thought that if one did not get a red badge of courage, then he was a coward.   Henry had â€Å"battles† in his mind.   â€Å"Fleming would pass into an absorptive trance in which... ...n, IA:   Perfection Learning Corporation, 1979. Gibson, Donald B. The Red Badge of Courage:   Redefining the Hero.   Boston:   Twayne Publishers, 1988. Lowell, Amay.   Introduction. The Work of Stephen Crane:   â€Å"The Black Riders and Other Lines.†Ã‚   By Stephen Crane.   Vol. VI. 1926. Rpt. in Discovering Authors. Vers 1.0. CD-ROM. Detriot:   Gale, 1992. Magill, Frank N., Magill’s Survey:   American Literature Realism to 1945.   California:   Salem Press, Inc., 1963. Walcutt, Charles C. Stephen Crane:   Naturalist and Impressionist in his American Literary Naturalism, a Divided Stream, University of Minnesota Press. 1956. Rpt. in Discovering Authors. Vers 1.0 CD-ROM.   Detriot:   Gale, 1992. Wolford, Chester L.   â€Å"Stephen Crane.†Ã‚   Critical Survey of Long Fiction.   Ed. Frank N. Magill.   English Language Series.   Vol. 2. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press, 1991.   

Thursday, October 24, 2019

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge Essay -- essays research papers

à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridgeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? Ambrose Bierce weaves a tale of intrigue and captivation, by using shifts of voice and time in the story à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridgeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. In the first four paragraphs, Bierce begins the story using third person, and in this point of view, he creates reality. We can view the situation and all aspects while it is written in third person; we know precisely what is going on, we know it is real. Near the end of the fourth paragraph, the author shifts cleverly from third person to limited omniscient. After having us view the story in third person, Bierce transfers from reality, to the main characters' thought processes, having us view Peyton's thoughts and dreams also as reality. "He looked a moment at his "unsteadfast footing," then let his gaze wander to the swirling water of the stream racing madly beneath his feet." (P.67) it is here where Bierce shifts and starts to mislead us, by using Peyton Farquhar's thought processes as a filter. It is a clever shift, because in this moment, we are getting closer to the time of Farquhar's death, and we have previously read reality. Time then slows down; the explanation of the phenomenon, of Peyton Farquhars's death, is both detailed and plausible, and there is a special trick: "He closed his eyes in order to fix his last thoughts upon his wife and children"(P.67) It is in this sentence that Ambrose Bierce starts to evoke hope in the reader. The author knows th...

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Development of Tourism Around Certain Key Wildlife Species Can Be Problematic. Evaluate Strategies Which Are Used, Around the World, to Seek a Working Balance in the Nature-People Relationship?

9. The development of tourism around certain key wildlife species can be problematic. Evaluate strategies which are used, around the world, to seek a working balance in the Nature-People relationship? Tourism is the world’s largest industry with nature-based ecotourism seeing rapid growth since its initial arrival in the 1980s. It is estimated by the World Tourism Organisation that nature tourism generates 7% of all international travel expenditure (Lindberg, 1997) and this figure will have increased rapidly over recent years.It’s increase in popularity is due to a number of factors; tourists becoming increasingly bored of the typical sun, sea and sand holiday’s, the increase in global awareness or environmental issues such as global warming, deforestation and conservation efforts. Ecotourism has the ability through its economic benefits to increase conservation, improve the economic well-being of local communities and national governments and educate people on t he threats facing fragile environments around the world. However, ecotourism is not without its drawbacks and ill-managed and uncontrolled tourism can impact badly on wildlife and protected areas.In this assignment I will aim to look at the relationship between people and ecotourism and analyse the benefits and weaknesses that they both have on each other. The most prominent thing which springs to mind with regard to nature tourism for most people would be safaris in Africa aiming at spotting the ‘Big 5’ (African Elephant, Black Rhinoceros, Cape Buffalo, Lion & Leopard). The term was originally coined by hunters but now it is applied widely in tourism. ‘Africans safaris are one of the fastest growing segments of the travel market’ (Wildlife Travel, 2006).Approximately 8% of Kenya is protected National Parks and reserves and these areas are responsible for generating millions of pounds annually for the treasury, and literally thousands of Kenyans are employe d in the wildlife-based tourism industry throughout the country (Sindiga, 1999). This means that many parts of Africa have been able to develop a sustainable part of the economy based around protecting and conserving the animals which they have for tourists benefit as opposed to in the past, where the predominant form of tourism was in hunting these animals.However now the money received from tourism can be used to increase conservation efforts and aid breeding programs and the rehabilitation of neglected animals. However, in some instances the companies which run the safaris have their headquarters located in other more economically developed countries therefore the money raised by the African land leaves the host country to other countries and therefore it is not helping Africa become more economically developed.The most distinguished nature reserve in Africa is the Masai Mara Nature Reserve in Kenya. Tourist accommodation first started being developed after the reserve was gazett ed in 1963. The initial effort enforced by the reserve to ensure the animals are not disturbed and parks preserved whilst tourists visit them is issuing all visitors and guides with a printed leaflet outlining the regulations which must be abided by whilst in the reserve and these are listed in figure 1.Infringement of these regulations carries a $25 fine, although it is rarely applied (Wildlife and People, 1999) †¢ No off-road driving. †¢ No following of animals. †¢ Minimum approach distance of 20m to an animal. †¢ Limit of five vehicles at any one viewing. †¢ Limit of 10 minutes viewing when other vehicles are waiting to view. †¢ Maximum speed limit of 50km/hr. †¢ No deliberate use of noise to distract wildlife. †¢ No leaning out of vehicles (except roof hatches) and no getting out of vehicles. †¢ No dropping litter. †¢ No pets. †¢ No starting fires. Figure 1A study conducted to see how many visitors broke these rules suggeste d that regulations were broken in over 90% of cases, with the main infringement being too many vehicles around animals and driving too close to the animals (Wildlife and people, 2003). Obviously, it is very hard to enforce these rules as guides and tourists want to get the closest possible encounter due to them having to forgo large amounts of financial expenditure for the experience and in the guides opinion the happier a visitor is the more likely they are to receive repeat business in the future or positive word of outh advertising. Also the increasing number of vehicles in safari parks increases pollution and can cause a distraction for hunting animals and disturb the prey which they are stalking as these animals have adapted their hunting tactics over thousands of years and they now have a relatively new factor to adapt to. However, in some instances the vehicles can be beneficial as for the cheetah who have been known to jump up on the roofs of vehicles in order to get a bette r view of where there prey is. Big Cat Week, 2010) Construction of tourist facilities may increase the amount of jobs available to local people however it does also mean that more land is lost for natural habitats and although it is a necessary harm which is needed to increase economic activity there are few regulations on how much land can be used for new buildings and the removal of vegetation can increase soil erosion (Safariholidays 2011).Africa has a very delicate eco system which is highly vulnerable to drought and famine so although the benefits of tourism mean increasing sustainability in the long run it must be ensured that the locals receive some of the benefits because it is their land which is being developed for the benefits of tourists.This is heightened by the fact about the large amounts of water is used during tourism activities whether it be for regular showers which westerners are accustomed to or filling numerous swimming pools up continuously to counter the effe cts of evaporation due to the fact that water is a scarce commodity in many parts of Africa and tourists are consuming large amounts of it taking it away from the animals and people who depend on it.The safari industry also helps to improve the relationship between local farmers and big cats such as cheetahs due to the fact that farmers will kill animals which prey on the herds, normally out of desperation due to the fact that they are considered a pest however increasing awareness of how other local residents depend on the survival of the big cats for tourism has lead more farmers to report incidents of attacks to reserves and safaris as opposed to laying out meat laced with poison.On a different side of things which focuses more on the illegal benefits made from poaching animals eco-tourism now exists in Madagascar where adventurers pay local guides to lead tour groups through reserves, finding and pointing out the rare and hard-to-spot species of wildlife which the tourists have come to see. The guides track the animals every day and therefore have a better understanding of where to find them at different times.This is a very effective tourism as it puts money directly into the locals peoples pockets and there is no middle men in the process so much so that it can worth while to prevent other local residents from hunting the animals concerned or cutting trees for firewood. (Ralf Buckley, 2010 page 50). This is a perfect job for many local residents who have extensive knowledge of the jungle through growing up their with many people getting a large amount of their meat through before hunting in the jungle can now receive an alternate way to make money through hosting guides.However, it could be suggested that the money received from tourism is not enough to sustain locals due to the face that one individual involved in wild life tourism in Madagascar was involved in poaching wildlife for the black market and also claimed to be able to guide tourist groups to sightings of two rare Madagascar endemic species; the tomato frog and the aye-aye lemur. In which it is reported that suspicion that the animals were captive animals placed in sports shortly before tourists arrival and then recaptured afterwards (Ralf Buckley, 2010, page 51).This is obviously very stressful for the animals involved and the tourists are unknowingly funding a harmful form of tourism however without the proper regulation in place to ensure tour guides are responsible there is no easy way of stopping this as tourists are always going to be attracted to guides who promise to show tourists guaranteed sightings of rare species of animals. As at the moment it would seem some ‘guides’ are taking advantage of the animals they are suppose to help to protect.In conclusion I would say that eco-tourism is constantly moving forward, having switched from mainly hunting in Africa in the 1960’s to now numerous sustainable Safaris all over Africa and with complete ly new eco-tourism destinations, such as Madagascar becoming more and more popular helping the country develop a whole new economy through the emergence of eco-tourism. There are obviously faults in the industry, just like most other industries.The main one in Africa would be the fact that much of the money raised by the host countries leaves to western countries and the local people see little benefit from having their land developed for tourism and preserved for the safety of animals as if this land was not used in this way it would most likely be used by the local people for some form of farming. The main thing which needs to change now is for the distribution of wealth to be more fair and even between the companies and the local people.And it would seem the main disadvantage for Madagascar being the lack of regulation, which enables corruption within the industry. 1505 words References Lindberg, K. , Furze. , Staff, M. , Black, R. (1997) Ecotourism in the Asia-Pacific Region: Is sues and Outlook. Burlington, VT. The International Ecotourism Society. Ian Proctor. (2006). â€Å"Is an African Safari Safe? â€Å". Available: http://www. wildlifetravel. net/african%20safari%20advice. htm. Last accessed 20/03/2012. n/a. (2011). Negative Impacts of Safari Tourism. Available: http://safariholidays. ikispaces. com/Disadvantages+of+Safari+tourism. Last accessed 20/03/2012. Ralf Buckley (2010). Conservation Tourism. Oxfordshire, England: CABI Pulishing. page 51. Sindiga, I. (1999) Tourism and African Development: change and challenge of tourism in Kenya. African Studies Centre, Lieden. Walpole, M. J. , Karanja, G. G. , Sitati, N. W.. (2003). Wildlife and People: Conflict & Conservation in Masai Mara, Kenya. Available: http://www. peopleandwildlife. org. uk/publications/CONFLICT%20w_and_p_masaimara. pdf. Last accessed 22. 03. 2012.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Lombards history Essay Example

Lombards history Essay Example Lombards history Essay Lombards history Essay ONeill: (Very angry, in Tyrone accent) I think so. And this is my country. (Quietly, in his usual accent) I have married a very talented, a very spirited, a very beautiful young woman. This sudden change of accent is a method of gaining presence and making a point for ONeill, the use of his Irish accent shows he is in command and he is still in charge of his country. ONeills outburst of anger is also whilst defending and justifying his marriage to Mabel this really shows how loyal he is to her deep down and that he respects Mabels betrayal of her own country.ONeills description of Mabel (talented, spirited) is very accurate and is how Friel portrays her throughout the play. Mabel is a unique character as she manages to stay neutral to both opposing factions, as a character she represents peace and harmony because of this. Archbishop Lombard is described by the narrator, By profession he is a church diplomat and his manner is careful and exact. These careful choice of words tell the audience that Lombard is quite a sly character with a good sense of language and means to talk his way out or in to a situation well.He is not likely to be very religious but exploits his profession in order to gain himself an advantage. Lombard decides to write ONeills history, and, true to his character, refers to history as a story (p. 8), avoiding ONeills questions when asked if he will be telling the truth. Lombard: Im not sure that truth is a primary ingredient is that a shocking thing to say? (p. 8-9) It is clear from this conversation that both ONeill and Lombard have completely different stances on writing history.ONeill believes it should be an accurate document of events whereas Lombard believes it should be twisted in order to become an entertaining tale based on events. This presents ONeill with another pair of identities Hero vs. the real ONeill. How he will be portrayed through Lombards history will certainly not be the real, womanising, careless ONeill, but a brave leader and hero of Ireland.These ideas Friel has implemented challenges the audience to think about what they would themselves prefer as history the truth or a fairytale created to entertain in order to be passed down to others. Lombards rhetorical question ( is that a shocking thing to say? ) shows he knows that it is slightly devious, but its the truth never the less. The second act contrasts entirely with the first. Only eight months have passed in the play, but the Battle of Kinsale has been lost and ONeill is now living in poverty, He is using a wooden box as a table the narrator describes. ONeill: Have you any food? (p. 43) The mood is now desperate and sinister, ONeill is no longer the charismatic and talkative character he was eight months ago, but now an ageing man with growing regret, his rich and happy life no longer apart of him but now placed with a criminal identity.Wanted by both the Irish and English, both of ONeills identities have abandoned him. The end of Act 1 Scene 1 announces the death of both Mabel and her baby the cross-breed that Mabels sister Mary had warned her about. Friels use of herbs have also pre-empted the inevitable fate of Mabel and the baby. ONeill: (Almost in a whisper) Yes, I think Ill take some of that whiskey now, Hugh. Just a thimbleful, if you please. And no water. Oh, dear God (Quick black. ) (p. 54) The stage directions that show ONeill almost unable to speak after hearing the shocking news shows how unexpected it is for him.The quick black tells the audience it is the end of the scene and also adds further dramatic effect to the abrupt news the way this is delivered most probably leaves the audience is a state of shock also. Scene 2 is set in Rome, many years later (p. 54), ONeill and the others have been forced to flee, where they are no longer welcome in both Ireland or England. The narrator tells us he has a volatile and bitter temper, carries a walking stick and has begun to lose sight in his eyes. This image paints the picture of an elderly, dishevelled man burdened with the regret of many terrible mistakes.Throughout most of this final scene ONeill is scarcely sober, this indicates he must be very unhappy with his life and how it has ended up for him to drink so much. ONeill: (He bumps into a stool and knocks it over. As he straightens it) Forgive me. (p. 54) As ONeill drunkenly bumps into a stool and then apologises to it for knocking it over, you feel instantly embarrassed and sympathetic for ONeill. He is now a shadow of his former self, no longer his bubbly, talkative and distracted character.It appears to the audience that ONeill has lost sense of any identity he once had, which isnt hard to believe considering he has been banished from not one but both of his homes, and now resides in a foreign country that has been alien to him most of his life. ONeill: You said Mabel will have her place. That place is central to me. (p. 63) As the play draws to an end we see a scene shared by Lombard, Harry and ONeill, ONeill desperately trying to convince Lombard to tell the truth in his history, about his failure and corruption, and most interestingly to include Mabel.This shows how deeply he cared for her and enforces the idea of the bond they had over their dual identities. This must have comforted ONeill and made him feel at home, to lose that was really the turning point in his personality, almost as if when Mabel died she took his identity with her, as she was the last thing holding it together and making sense from it all. Act 2 Scene 2 reaches a close as ONeill finally accepts defeat and realises Lombard will write the history how he wants it, Lombard continuously asks What changes do you want me to make? But despite the details ONeill wants included, Lombard will still tell it in a way that is entertaining. Lombard begins to read the history as ONeill starts to cry and mourn for Mabel, (ONeill is now crying. Bring the lights down slowly. ) (p. 71). The slow fade of lights signifies the end of the play. Friel presented identity by portraying a man who had everything, and slowly stripped him of every last meaningful thing he had in order to convey the message of what makes us who we are.ONeill lost both of his countries, and his wife and baby, the loss of Mabel being pivotal she was the one person he could relate to and feel close to, and the baby symbolised a new beginning where the English and Irish could live in harmony together. Through Lombards history we will not learn about ONeills duality, his close friend Harry or wife Mabel that helped shape his character, but a Hero who fought a tough battle for Ireland, fled with the Flight of the Earls, and shall be king for the span of his life (p. 71), thus telling us that identity exists in many forms.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Examine the claim that cities have recently entered a postmodern stage in their development

Examine the claim that cities have recently entered a postmodern stage in their development Anthony Giddens defines postmodernism as "the belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress." He sees postmodern society as "highly pluralistic with no 'grand narrative' guiding its development"(Giddens, 2001). But it is also important to look at 'postmodernity' in relation to 'modernity', to see it as the direct result of the latter, as a reaction to the industrial, functional qualities of the modern movement (James-Chakraborty, 2001). From a sociological view-point the two movements can be seen as follows: the 'modern' movement taking into account the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, and the "postmodern' movement, the changes brought upon us by the Information Revolution (Macionis, Plummer, 1998). But, to what extent can it really be said that cities have recently entered a 'postmodern' stage in their development? To answer this question one must first grasp what the 'modern' and 'postmodern' movements entail, particularly in relation to cities , in their physical form and urban life in general.HarveyThe period of modernisation fundamentally began with the Industrial Revolution and the huge economic growth that ensued. Peter Berger has clearly expressed four major characteristics of the modern age (Macionis, Plummer, 1998). The first, perhaps the most important or indeed obvious, is the gradual decline of the traditional community, what Toennies saw as the passing from the Gemeinshaft; the traditional close-nit community where social solidarity is ever present and conformity is ensured by strict, often spiritual, moral values, to the Gesellschaft; the society of city life, characterised by large urban communities where the sense of community is diminished to a great extent and the individual is often left with a sense of alienation. And yet, it puts people "in touch with the pulse of the larger society and even the entire world". Berger goes on to note that modernisation...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Role of the White House Press Corps in American Democracy

Role of the White House Press Corps in American Democracy The White House press corps is a group of about 250 journalists whose job is to write about, broadcast and photograph the activities and policy decisions made by the  president of the United States and his administration. The White House press corps is comprised of  print and digital reporters, radio and television journalists, and photographers and videographers employed by competing  news organizations.   What makes the journalists  in the White House press corps unique among political beat reporters is their physical proximity to the president of the United States, the most powerful elected official in the free world, and his administration. Members of the White House press corps travel with the president and are hired to follow his every move.   The job of White House correspondent is considered to be among the most prestigious positions in political journalism because, as one writer put it, they work in a town where proximity to power is everything, where grown men and women would forsake a football field size suite of offices in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building for a shared cubicle in a bullpen in the West Wing. The First White House Correspondents The first journalist considered to be a White House correspondent was William â€Å"Fatty† Price, who was trying out for a job at the Washington Evening Star. Price, whose 300-pound frame earned him the nickname, was directed to go to the White House to find a story in President Grover Cleveland’s administration in 1896. Price made a habit of stationing himself outside the North Portico, where White House visitors couldn’t escape his questions. Price got the job and used the material he gathered to write a column called â€Å"At the White House.† Other newspapers took notice, according to W. Dale Nelson, a former Associated Press reporter and author of â€Å"Who Speaks For the President?: The White House Press Secretary from Cleveland to Clinton.† Wrote Nelson: â€Å"Competitors quickly caught on, and the White House became a news beat.† The first reporters in the White House press corps worked sources from the outside in, loitering on the White House grounds.  But they insinuated themselves into the presidents residence in the early 1900s, working over a single table in President Theodore Roosevelts White House. In a 1996 report,  The White House Beat at the Century Mark, Martha Joynt Kumar wrote for Towson State University and The Center for Political Leadership and Participation at the University of Maryland: The table was perched outside of the office of the Presidents secretary, who briefed reporters on a daily basis. With their own observed territory, reporters established a property claim in the White House. From that point forward, reporters had space they could call their own. The value of their space is found in its propinquity to the President and to his Private Secretary. They were outside the Private Secretarys office and a short walk down the hall from where the President had his office. Members of the White House press corps eventually won their own press room in the White House. They occupy a space in the West Wing to this day and are organized in the White House Correspondents Association.   Why Correspondents Get to Work in the White House There are three key developments that made journalists a permanent presence in the White House, according to Kumar. They are: The precedents set in coverage of specific events including the death of President James Garfield  and as the constant presence of reporters on presidential trips. Presidents and their White House staffs got used to having reporters hanging around and, finally, let them have some inside work space, she wrote.Developments in the news business. News organizations gradually came to view the President and his White House as subjects of continuing interest to their readers, Kumar wrote.Heightened public awareness of presidential power as a force in our national political system. The public developed an interest in presidents at a time when the chief executive was called upon to provide direction in domestic and foreign policy on a more routine basis than had previously been the case, Kumar wrote.   The journalists assigned to cover the president are stationed in a dedicated â€Å"press room† located in the West Wing of the president’s residence. The journalists meet almost daily with the president’s press secretary in the James S. Brady Briefing Room, which is named for the press secretary to President Ronald Reagan. Role in Democracy The journalists who made up the White House press corps in its early years had far more access to the president than the reporters of today. In the early 1900s, it was not uncommon for news reporters to gather around the desk of the president and ask questions in rapid-fire succession. The sessions were unscripted and unrehearsed, and therefore often yielded actual news. Those journalists provided an objective, unvarnished first draft of history and an up-close account of the presidents every move. Reporters working in the White House today have far less access to the president and his administration and are presented with little information by the presidents press secretary. Daily exchanges between the president and reporters - once a staple of the beat - have almost been eliminated, the Columbia Journalism Review reported in 2016. Veteran investigative reporter Seymour Hersh told the publication: â€Å"I’ve never seen the White House press corps so weak. It looks like they are all angling for invitations to a White House dinner.† Indeed, the prestige of the White House press corps has been diminished over the decades, its reporters seen as accepting spoonfed information. This is an unfair assessment; modern presidents have worked to obstruct journalists from gathering information. Relationship With the President The criticism that members of the White House press corps are too cozy with the president is not a new one; it most surfaces under Democratic administrations because members of the media are often seen as being liberal. That the White House Correspondents Association holds an annual dinner attended by U.S. presidents does not help matters.   Still, the relationship between almost every modern president and the White House press corps has been rocky. The stories of intimidation perpetrated by presidential administrations on journalists are legendary - from Richard Nixons ban on reporters who wrote unflattering stories about him, to Barack Obamas crackdown on leaks and threats on reporters who didnt cooperate, to George W. Bushs statement that the media claim they didnt represent America and his use of executive privilege to hide information from the press.   Even Donald Trump has threatened to kick reporters out of the press room, at the beginning of his term. His administration considered the media â€Å"the opposition party. To date, no president has tossed the press out of the White House, perhaps out of deference to the age-old strategy of keeping friends close - and perceived enemies closer. More Reading The Fascinating History of the White House Press Room: Town CountryThe President, the Press and Proximity: White House Historical AssociationThe Press Has Always Been a Guest in the President’s Home: LongreadsHistory of the White House Correspondents’ Association: White House Correspondents’ AssociationThe White House Beat at the Century Mark:  Martha Joynt KumarDo We Need a White House Press Corps?: Columbia Journalism Review

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Marketing Mix Stimuli Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Marketing Mix Stimuli - Essay Example The researcher states that product portfolio of Ariel brand can be explained in the following manner. Ariel Excel Gel The product is designed for low-temperature cleaning. A unique design of the bottle and innovative gel formulae of the product give a user the opportunity to wash clothes with high precision. The gel gets dissolve very easily in water hence solvency rate increases. The detergent is able to remove various types of stains such as tomato sauce, dirt, chocolate etc from cloths. Ariel Powder Ariel Powder is designed to give brilliant cleaning in every wash. The detergent can wash colored garments without causing harm to fabrics of a garment. The detergent should be dosed directly on the cloth by taking water as the surfactant. Ariel Excel Liquitabs Ariel Excel Liquitabs is able to remove stains such as oil, tar, grease etc. The product should be dosed in the lower drawer of Washing Machine. Ariel Tablets Ariel Tablets provides the convenience of using to users. The product has been developed in order to get a brilliant wash from the smallest possible dose. The study will be incomplete if it misses the opportunity to explain the role of consumer behavior in purchasing a detergent product. A psychoanalytical theory proposed by Sigmund Freud states that human personality depends on different variables such as id (biological need driven gratification), ego (conflict between the hedonistic requirement of id and ethical constraint of superego) and superego (behavior backed by social responsibility). Many consumers show boycotts of non-eco-friendly products in order to show their environmental concern. These customers prefer â€Å"ethical consumption† in order to maintain environmental sustainability. Foxall et al. have divided motivation into six components such as social needs, physiological needs, cognitive needs, symbolic needs, experiential needs and hedonic needs in order to explain customer demand. Customers purchase Ariel detergent in order t o satisfy their daily household needs hence purchase behavior is more driven by id aspect in contrast to other elements of psychoanalytic theory. Detergent purchase behavior of a customer can be briefed in the following manner.   People purchase detergent as daily household item hence they do not spend much time on the pre-purchase decision. Self-consciousness plays the very small role in purchasing decision. Brand conscious customers purchase Ariel due to the brand name of Procter & Gamble. Many customers purchase Ariel with an intention to satisfy self-esteem. Psychographics VALS or â€Å"Value and Lifestyle† framework has divided consumers into four segments such as â€Å"Actulizers† (Customers spending large sum of money on purchasing in order to show taste and attitude), Fulfilled (Customers purchasing product after doing rigorous background research), Believers (purchasing product in order to satisfy traditional family value) and Strivers (Customers purchasing low priced but stylish products). A study shows that believers play the significant role in purchasing detergent. Believers prefer well-known brands hence they choose Ariel over unknown local brands. Involvement Detergent is a low involvement product because customers do not require huge financial resources to purchase it.

Friday, October 18, 2019

London Metropolitan University Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

London Metropolitan University - Essay Example Additionally, Brain Activity will be determined using electroencephalography (EEG). This will be another form of disclosure of confidential or private information. Electroencephalography (EEG) examines brain electrical activity in human brain and it can detect covert processing, a processing without any requirement on responds. Therefore, with this private and confidential disclosure, I would only take into account only participants who volunteer and commit myself to do testing on as far as the project goes and as long as no harm occurs on any of my interviewees or myself. At this stage, I have not yet come across any potential conflicts of interest towards my proposed research project. On the other hand I will not be 100% sure whether there may or may not be any potential conflicts of interest towards my project in the future or not. However, as far as I am concerned, my proposed research project does no harm to participants or myself as one of the volunteers participating in my research project. The risks are potentially minimal since the project involves interviews. However, some participants may be allergic to some materials, including materials that may have been used in making my design objects. Before exposing my research participants to my objects, no matter how common they appear to be, I will ask them if they have any allergic reaction to objects. This way, I will be able to assert with utmost certainty that my project does not harm anyone in any way. The primary objective of this research is to determine the emotional effect of shapes/forms on human brain. Research findings will give an in depth understanding of this important connection and therefore, the use of objects/forms especially jewellery will be optimised to bring positive inner feelings such as inner peace and calm. This will greatly benefit me, participants, and more notably, marketers who can articulate their marketing products to appeal to emotions of their

The Cognitive Approaches of Challenged the Concept of Behavioral Essay

The Cognitive Approaches of Challenged the Concept of Behavioral Theory - Essay Example A child learns new behaviours or is able to modify existing behaviours, as a function of environmental events that either reward or punish that behaviour. Skinner’s learning theory is a move away from the traditional behaviourist approach of stimulus and response, as he differentiated between types of responses. When a response was elicited by a known stimulus it is considered to be associated with the known stimulus. Alternatively, responses that do not require a specific stimulus, which he termed operants, are independent of the stimulus. Skinner emphasized that it was the operant response that could be strengthened or weakened by the use of personal, social or environmental rewards or punishments respectively. Skinner’s principles advocated the idea that learning could be ‘programmed,’ which fit with the 1960s initial explorations into computer-aided instruction. All that was required was for the student to practice, and to be provided with the ideal rei nforcement (i.e., reward or punishment). Students were perceived to learn through processes of rote memorization and amount of practice. A subject such as English has been greatly influenced by Skinner’s principles of reinforcement in terms of being better able to regulate student behaviours and learning achievements. Information is reduced by the teacher into smaller components (e.g., poetry, spelling, vocabulary), and organized by the teacher into a format believed that the student will understand and can systematically build on.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Electric circuits and devices prototyping Lab Report

Electric circuits and devices prototyping - Lab Report Example [3] A BJT is a current controlled device and has three terminals i.e. base, collector and emitter. The base determines the current in the emitter and the collector output. Actually BJT is a piece of silicon with three regions that have two junctions namely n and p. [3] An NPN transistor and the PNP transistor are examples of the two types of BJTs. The charge carriers in these two types of BJTs differ i.e. a PNP has electrons as its primary carrier, while NPN has holes as their primary carriers. NPN and PNP transistors practically have identical operation principles with the only difference being in biasing and in the polarity of the power supply for each type. [2] Typically, BJT has four distinct regions of operations; these are the forward active, reverse active, saturation and cutoff. Therefore, a BJT can operate in different modes depending on the junction bias. For instance, when base-emitter junction is forward biased and the base-collector junction is reversed biased, then the device is in the forward active region mode of operation. [3] The device is in reverse active region of operation when the base-collector junction is forward biased while base-emitter junction is reversed biased. The saturation mode occurs when there are forward bias potentials in both base-emitter and base-collector junctions. However, when both junctions are reverse biased then the device is in cutoff region of operation. [2] Since a BJT is three terminal device, it can be connected in three possible ways with one terminal being common for both input and output. These three configurations include common base, common collector and common emitter configurations. The common base configuration has high voltage gain with no current gain while the common emitter has gain for both current and voltage. The common emitter configuration has a current gain with no voltage gain. [3] This is a voltage-controlled device and has

Emily Dickinson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Emily Dickinson - Essay Example This piece is fundamentally significant and is named first as it is written in such a way that it capably yet briefly discusses virtually any and all things relevant to life on this earth. The very first line ushers the reader into an immediate mixture of nouns representing it seems, everything taking place in the world all at once, â€Å"Forms, qualities, lives, humanity, language, thoughts†(Whitman, 1). Discussing this poem first lays the groundwork for the integration of 11 other poems which utilize imagery and monologue within the same or similar context. The next poem chosen to compose this project is titled Adam Means Earth by Samuel Menashe. This poem discusses the name ’Adam’ which is given to the biblical character introduced in Genesis, who essentially is the origin of mankind. By returning to the very beginning of time based on biblical lure, the poet manages to devise a foundation which encompasses all things as he alludes to the fact that the very name ’Adam’ translates to earth. The vivid contrast of earth, or the physical sum of all things, against the backdrop of a disembodied name which is far removed from tangibility, allows the reader to derive an essential meaning based on physical existence and spirituality on a fundamental level. The poet is able however, to remove the ideology of religion and still utilize biblical reference and imagery. He uses it to his advantage and it works well. Continuing with the theme of an elemental approach routed in earthy language, the poem entitled A Chagall Postcard written by Peter Porter, begins with a personification of the ’night’ drawing a similar connection between the physical and the intangible or disembodied idea of something such as the case with Menashe’s ’Adam’ compared to earth itself and Whitman’s first line coupling of pieces of life as we know them and tangible existence. Porter begins the piece with â€Å"The

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Electric circuits and devices prototyping Lab Report

Electric circuits and devices prototyping - Lab Report Example [3] A BJT is a current controlled device and has three terminals i.e. base, collector and emitter. The base determines the current in the emitter and the collector output. Actually BJT is a piece of silicon with three regions that have two junctions namely n and p. [3] An NPN transistor and the PNP transistor are examples of the two types of BJTs. The charge carriers in these two types of BJTs differ i.e. a PNP has electrons as its primary carrier, while NPN has holes as their primary carriers. NPN and PNP transistors practically have identical operation principles with the only difference being in biasing and in the polarity of the power supply for each type. [2] Typically, BJT has four distinct regions of operations; these are the forward active, reverse active, saturation and cutoff. Therefore, a BJT can operate in different modes depending on the junction bias. For instance, when base-emitter junction is forward biased and the base-collector junction is reversed biased, then the device is in the forward active region mode of operation. [3] The device is in reverse active region of operation when the base-collector junction is forward biased while base-emitter junction is reversed biased. The saturation mode occurs when there are forward bias potentials in both base-emitter and base-collector junctions. However, when both junctions are reverse biased then the device is in cutoff region of operation. [2] Since a BJT is three terminal device, it can be connected in three possible ways with one terminal being common for both input and output. These three configurations include common base, common collector and common emitter configurations. The common base configuration has high voltage gain with no current gain while the common emitter has gain for both current and voltage. The common emitter configuration has a current gain with no voltage gain. [3] This is a voltage-controlled device and has

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Teamwork Is the Best Way In Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Teamwork Is the Best Way In Business - Essay Example Even if companies implement the best human resource practices to prevent conflict within the teams they will occur and the managers and team leaders are responsible for finding ways to resolve these problems. Conflicts arise due to issues such as goal incompatibilities, resources scarcity, and interpersonal relationships. The way the work is structure is an element that affects the probability the manifestation of conflict. Workflow interdependencies are work designs that are subject to a high incidence of conflict. In such a setting there is a high degree of dependency between the work performed by different members, thus one person does not deliver on time or their quality of work is how it affects the other person. This is a breeding ground for conflict. The manager can design internal workflows in a way that the dependency among the members is reduced which will lower the incidence of conflict in a corporation. This can be achieved applying techniques such as decoupling or buffer ing. Decoupling is a technique that directly deals with confliction situation by reducing the required contact between conflicting parties. Buffering creates a work output inventory so that when these two groups that depend on each other work, the inventory serves as protection in case there is a delay of work in the system. There are several ways a manager can deal with conflict in order to find a prompt resolution to the situation. Five approaches that utilize in the industry to deal with conflict are accommodation, compromise, avoidance.

Why I Do What I Do Essay Essay Example for Free

Why I Do What I Do Essay Essay Never forget why you do what you do and who you do it for, and make sure everything you do honors that. What I’ve seen happen often times (especially in†¦ yup, you guessed it: the education reform movement), is that intentions start out good but the sword starts to swing the other way when money, power, and statistics are valued over the lives and humanity of students. â€Å"Kids first† and â€Å"For the kids† becomes merely rhetoric, as people jump to enact radically dangerous and untested policies that do anything but put kids first. It’s even scarier when these policies are put in place by people with power and money, because then they are blinded by their power and money and fail to see all the intricate parts of the matter. This scares me, because I believe my intentions are good, and the last thing I want to happen is for what I fight for to put students at a greater disadvantage. But I know that won’t happen, as long as I make sure that everything I do for my students stems from why I do what I do. I need my vision to be clear and for that vision, story, and root of my passion to drive me. I need to stay humble and true to my roots. So why do I fight for educational justice? Well for starters, I want to be a teacher. Every time I play that â€Å"nine lives† game at conferences where in each life you can choose any career you want, high school civics and social studies teacher is written in #1-9. But why do I want to be a teacher? Is it so I can watch people’s face fill with disappointment and bewilderment when I tell them my life’s ambition? Is it so I can work 2 other jobs to pay for my first job? Is it so I can have my impact measured by my students’ test scores? Is it so I can get weekends and summers off? The answer is simple: I want to devote my life’s work to inspiring and fostering young, bright, creative, and passionate hearts and minds. The thought of crafting creative and engaging lesson plans, bringing them to life in my classroom, sharing my stories and wisdom with young minds, taking my students to places they’ve never been (both intellectually and literally on field trips and such), and watching the m grow into conscientious, open-minded, kind-hearted, passionate people excites me like no other. I’ve gotten a taste of it through working with children of all ages during my high school and early college careers, and I really cannot wait until I am finally fully trained and prepared to teach my own classroom. But why become active in educational policy and activism? Well the answer to that connects to what I want to teach and how I was taught. Let’s start with the latter. I am very lucky to have gotten the education that I got. It completely changed my life. As I’ve mentioned before in my other posts, I didn’t realize what learning was until I was exposed to a full, well-rounded curriculum that included the arts, humanities, and social justice education. Before, I depended on my high test scores to know that I was learning. Today, I know that no test score could ever reveal how much I had truly grown and learned through my education. For the first time, I was experiencing what I was learning, rather than passively regurgitating information that I barely internalized (something I’m really excellent at doing†¦ I could be a professional test taker and that’s something to be ashamed of). I was finally opening my eyes to the intricacies and complexities of our global society and the field of education, and fina lly understanding concepts like solidarity, inequality, privilege, human rights, justice, and my role in all of these things. Social studies and civics woke my mind and heart and sparked such an immense passion in me that in my spare time, I found myself delving into the issues I studied more and more, as well as becoming more involved in my local community through organizing work and volunteerism. During this time in my life was when I found my passion in education, partly because realized the magic of education through my own transformational experience, and partly because I decided to write my sophomore year research paper on standardized testing and it shattered my long-held (arrogant) faith in tests as well as everything I thought I knew about education. As time went on, I slowly developed my biggest belief: that EVERY student should receive a free, quality, democratic, and well-rounded public education, unhindered by huge class sizes, dilapidated infrastructure, terrible working/learning conditions, inadequate funding, child poverty, high stakes testing, or other broken reform policies. I believe that this is a fundamental human right and true justice. This is why I am fighting for educational justice now. My education helped me find my voice and understand the importance of standing up for justice and equality for my brothers and sisters. When I look at the current attac ks on public education, especially by a group of people I used to trust to improve education, I get this intense emotional reaction that  mirrors the kind I would get in high school every time I read about or discussed a social injustice. My insides burn, my heart races, and every inch in my body longs to get up and do something because what is happening to students, teachers, and schools today is not reform; it’s destruction. I cannot possibly stand by while countless students are literally robbed of true education by neoliberals under the guise of â€Å"innovation†, â€Å"high expectations†, and â€Å"accountability.† I cannot possibly stand by while I hear my students’ stories of feeling unheard and powerless in what should be THEIR fight for THEIR education. I cannot possibly stand by while students continue to be silenced and invisible, their humanity reduced to digits and their futures determined by people who ignorantly implement harmful policies without considering student voice. I cannot possibly stand by while people who don’t want to devote a day of their life to educating a child use their money and power to manipulate and profit from a system they destroyed in the first place (Why is there a billionaire boys club? Oh right, because poverty and economic inequity exist and are silently hurting public education). I realize that I could not care about any of this, live a very easy life, float through grad school, get my teaching credential, and just be a teacher in a high school somewhere. I’m sure the reformies would love that. But I refuse to do that. And that has as much to do with how I was taught as it does with what I want to teach. I want to teach the things that made me a more open-minded, empowered, and justice-seeking person. I want to be a high school teacher of social justice and civic engagement. I believe that true education can and should awaken the mind and heart by fostering critical thinking (mind) and a commitment to social justice (heart). Yes, learning about all the terrible injustice and oppression that has marginalized groups of people throughout history is naturally discouraging, but I feel that there is also such beauty in looking at how the marginalized have historically risen up against their oppressors and fought for the justice and freedom from oppression. W hen students engage with learning material that relates to them and their cultural histories, they are more empowered to think and learn for themselves and take action. This kind of social justice education brings not only knowledge and enlightenment, but also hope for students. Hope that they too can not only live in a better world someday, but also be the reason for that better, more just and equal world. This is what I hope to bring to students. Hope. Light. A true sense of wonder for the world and love for those living in it. Motivation to learn and turn learning into positive action. A sense of empowerment. But how can I possibly begin to teach social justice in a system with so much injustice? I fight for educational justice because I believe that I myself have the power to contribute what I can now so that by the time my future students reach my classroom, the education system will be a more just place. I believe that empowered students like myself can and will stand up for what they believe is right and demand educational rights for all. I believe that education is liberation from oppression. I know I’m going to get a lot of opposition for fighting for what I believe in. Social justice education is equally liberating and threatening to authorities that pray for compliance. But I will not comply under policies and rules that put students at a disadvantage. I will not compl y with people who wish divergent perspectives and beliefs be silenced. I will not comply until there is justice. Instead, I will continue to hope. Hope that I can not only teach in a better education system one day, but also be the reason for that better, more just and equal system. Hope to live my lessons now and one day have my lessons come alive.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Violent Crime Throughout History Criminology Essay

Violent Crime Throughout History Criminology Essay From the beginning of human life, violent crime has been an issue that society has had to deal with. Violent crime destroys the lives of innocent people. In order for people to live in peace, it is important that society finds a way to decrease violent criminal behavior. Society continually puts restraints in place as a means of deterring violent crime. These restraints are based on theories as to how violent behavior is derived and controlled. Before we can successfully deter criminal behavior, we must first understand the minds of those that commit these crimes. Social organizational theories suggest that the criminal mind evolves from its environment. Statistically, there is some truth to this, because crime is more dominant in urban, low income geographic areas with weak community controls. Theorists, Clifford Shaw and Henry Mckay (1972), Note the format for multiple authors, described socially disorganized neighborhoods as brimming with attitudes and values conductive to delinquency and crime, which provided pathways to adult crime. Social disorganization is described by social scientist, Robert Bursik (1988), this is the citation format for a single author as the capacity of a neighborhood to regulate itself through formal and informal processes of social control. This criminal behavior sometimes becomes violent and is passed down from one generation to the next, which provides the continuation to its same geographic location. Violent criminal behavior is prevalent in areas that have a high rate of crime. Marvin Wolfgang (1958) found that most non-premeditated homicides, not caused by mental disease or defect, occur mostly among members of certain social groups living in certain neighborhoods. He also attributed most perpetrators as being young, nonwhite, lower-class males who share a value system, that conduct norms of a subculture of violence. (Wolfgang and Ferracuti, 1967, p. 276) If the quote is more than 40 words or more you do not use quotes. You block the quote, starting on a new line and indenting five spaces from the left margin on each line and double spacing. When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation in the text, and include a complete reference in the reference list. Most perpetrators value their social status in the community more than human life. Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1967) explained the thoughts of some perpetrators as its either him or me. Violence is used as a means of survival in some disorganized neighborhoods. This makes violent crime extremely hard to combat. Social organizational theories lend support to many different ways of deterring and combating violent crimes. Community policing can be directed to those areas that have many violent crimes reducing social disorder at the neighborhood level. Such neighborhoods can form groups, and separate themselves from gangs and violent crowds, categorizing such behavior as deviant and unacceptable to society. Gerald Suttles (1968) referred to such communities as defended neighborhoods. The Wilson and Kelling, (1982) broken window theory also reflects ways of deterring crime by cosmetically cleaning up a disorganized community, to instill pride in its inhabitants. Some communities are also installing gates and guards to keep the criminal element out. All of these deterrents are effective ways to combat violent crimes, but none will entirely eliminate them. Although statistics definitely reinforce social organizational theories, they definitely undermine a persons free will to commit a violent crime. There are people that come from disorganized communities that become successful and do not turn to crime, just as there are murderers and rapists that come from high class neighborhoods. Violent criminal behavior is not always passed down through generations. If a persons environment is responsible for the crimes that they commit, why is a person punished for their crimes? Is violent behavior a byproduct of ones environment, or is it the behavior learned or is its consequences not learned from their parents, peers, teachers, etc.? These are all questions that we struggle to find answers to that would help future endeavors in combating and deterring violent crime. Social Process Theories: Here we are given notice that the topic is changing substantially Theories that explain criminal behavior as learned behavior are considered social process theories. According to sociologist Edwin L. Sutherland (1950), criminal behavior is learned and most learning occurs within intimate personal groups. This has become known as the differential association theory. According to Ronald Akers (1985), learned criminal behavior is acquired or conditioned by the effects, outcomes, or consequences it has on the persons environment. This is accomplished through a persons punishments and reinforcements (rewards or avoided punishments). F. Ivan Nye (1958) described criminal activity from juvenile delinquents as being attributed to family-level punishments and restrictions, affection with parents, their conscience, and the availability of the means to gratify needs. Recently, young males are responsible for a good portion of not only crimes, but violent crimes. Violent crimes are a true concern to the public. Social process theories suggest that violent behavior may be learned from a persons peers or parents. Gang members form close-knit groups and may influence their peers to commit violent crimes. These theories also suggest that a child learns behavior from his or her parents. This can attribute to domestic violence, which has been proven to be spread from one generation to the next in many cases. According to social process theories, children must learn that violence is deviant in society and they must have proper parental guidance and reinforcement from peers. One way to combat violent criminal behavior is through the social bonding theory. According to Travis Hirschi (1972) The bond of affection for conventional persons is a major deterrent to crime. A social bond is the forces in a persons environment that connects them to society and its morality. The social bond theory is based on such key elements as attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. This theory can be applied by parental guidance, affection, and by incorporating community programs for children. Law enforcement officials can interact with troubled children, having a positive influence on them. DARE, Drug Abuse Resistance Education, and GREAT, Gang Resistance Education and Training are two examples of programs based on social process theories. Although effectiveness is debated, with some refinement, these programs may possibly have a profound effect on criminal behavior amongst juveniles. Social process theories offer some good ideas behind the cause of criminal behavior and ways to correct or deter it, but they definitely dont cover all crimes, especially some of those considered to be violent. Social process theories do not give much account for individual motives as to why crimes are committed. They do little to explain crimes of passion, and other violent crimes committed by people that were never exposed to such criminal behavior as a child. Travis Hirshci (1969), suggests that criminality is more or less naturally present, that it requires socialization for its control. Social learning theories suggest that criminal behavior is learned rather than naturally present. Conclusion: Your paper should end with a conclusionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦usually your summary and any opinion of your findings. (avoid writing in the first person) Although different, social organizational and social process theories are similar in some aspects. Social organizational theories explain criminal or violent behavior as a product of ones environment. This is true in a way that the criminal behavior is learned through the people which surround them, which reflects views of social process theories. Sheldon Glueck (1950) refers to this as birds of a feather flock together. People are influenced by their surroundings either positively or negatively. This attributes to their upbringing. Statistics prove that someone from a good upbringing is less likely to become involved in crime. Criminal behavior leads to violent crime. One is very rarely present without the other. One example of this is that people on drugs will do what ever can to get a hold of drugs. When the regard for themselves and others diminishes, violent crime will occur. Both of these sets of theories are true in many aspects about the cause of crime. They both also provide us useful ways of combating and deterring crime. All theories are useful, but no one theory successfully explains all criminal behavior and the best way to deter it. In order to successfully deter violent crime, we must look at all of these theories and combat crime from all angles. Once we better understand the minds behind violent crime, we will do better in combating and deterring it.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Advertising and Promotion Strategy Name Institution Essay -- Marketing

Advertising and Promotion Strategy Raising awareness about the product a company has at hand is where business begins and it is a great teller of how successful the product will be in the competitive market. The art of communication has become a vital aspect and this is attributed to the fact that there are a wide variety of channels of communication that a company can employ. It is therefore advisable that as a company you be able to come up with a marketing strategy that will make your products stand out from the rest of the crowd. The company should be able to create a message that will be used in giving the product a position in the market. In the current world internet has changed the way business is being conducted and issues of targeting and segmentation are being handled differently (Milkman, 2008). All this is done with the intention of increasing the revenue and profits of a given organization. It is all about the connections we have that will make us be able to sell our products best. You should be able to tell why the consumers should be able to buy the products you have in the market by summarizing the details about the product. Have a unique approach that will make the consumers have a reason for conducting business with you. Through communication, you are able to act as the problem solver for your consumers and create trust for them. You have to summarize the products services and the package options the organization has and the benefits of each to the consumer. The communication strategy adopted should be one that will give you feedback once the product has been released into the market. As an organization, they should expect both a positive and a negative feedback. Due to this they should be armed with ... ...1, Vol. 81. (36). 34. Charles W. L., Joseph F. H. & Jr., Carl, M. (2009). Essentials of Marketing, Canada: South Western Cengage Learning. Edelman, D. C. (2010). Branding in the Digital Age. Harvard Business Review. Vol 88. 62-69. Ludi, K. & Steve, B. (2005). Marketing Communications. Johannesburg: Juta and Company Limited. Marieke, K. & de, M. (2010). Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. London: Sage Publishers, Milkman, K. L. (2008) Tap Consumers' Desire for "Shoulds". Harvard Business Review. Jul-Aug. Vol. 86. I (7/8). 22-23. O’Connell, A. (2010). Reading the Public Mind. Deshpandà ©, Rohit Why You Aren't Buying Venezuelan Chocolate. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 88. 25-27. Ogilvie, J.R. (2006). CLEP Principles of Management: The Best Test Preparation for the CLEP. New Jersey: Research & Education Association. .

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Putting an End to School Violence †Is Zero Tolerance the Solution? :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Putting an End to School Violence – Is a Zero Tolerance Policy the Solution? There are very few people today who are unaware of the violence in schools. As college students we live in a world that is desperate to find prevention methods against violence. That makes this issue important to today's college students, considering the fact that we are the generation that could have been involved and directly effected by a school shooting like Columbine. Is this how we want our school systems to be when our children enroll? A school is defined as "an institution for teaching and learning". However, today's educational institutions include punishment, violence, and misbehavior. When we find ourselves glued to the television because of another school shooting, obviously something needs to be done about violence in schools. Unfortunately, the solution causes creates more problems. Schools around the world have recently adopted revolutionary solution and prevention methods. The controversy over school violence prevention is not "yes we should or, "no we shouldn't", because you will probably be hard pressed to find someone who thinks we shouldn't get involved. The debate lies in the method we use to prevent and solve school violence. The zero tolerance policy is one suggestion to implement punishment in schools. The zero tolerance policy is strict and devises rules for students and faculty alike. It is a policy that doesn't ask questions when a rule is broken which often results in suspension and expulsion. The policy also addresses the possession of weapons, drugs, and alcohol. Many schools have adopted this policy and have observed both positive and negative results. If the zero tolerance program is installed in the educational system, schools must decide when and how it should be enforced. This is a very complex issue and when open to debate you see three approaches to it. First, advocates of zero tolerance policies concentrate on positive changes in school security, ways of punishment, and change in student behavior. Those who oppose the policies argue that zero tolerance should be eliminated due to its lack of rationale and logic. Finally, the opposing viewpoint criticizes the zero tolerance policy for being too extreme and inappropriate for schools. The first group, those who favor the policy, dwell on school improvement due to zero tolerance. One positive change is reinstated safety in schools giving students, parents, teachers, and the community a breath of relief. Advocates of this positive change believe that schools should be a place of learning without safety concerns.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Electronic Health Records: the Good and the Bad Essay

The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is an electronic record of patient health information created by one or more encounters in any care delivery setting. The information included in an EHR are patient demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data and radiology reports. â€Å"EHRs are designed to reach out beyond the health organization that originally collects and complies information† (Zerwekh and Zerwekh Garneau, 2014 p.541). It focuses on the complete heath of the patient. â€Å"EHR introduction into the health care system can be viewed as an innovation† (Advanced Practice Nurses’†¦, 2013). Before EHRs, access to medical charts required a fair amount of time, every patient that visited the office or hospital, their file had to be physically pulled. EHRs have eliminated that hassle, not only do they reduce time, but also reduce errors. EHRs are more â€Å"legible because there is no hand writing and they are always up to date† (Zerwekh and Zerwekh Garneau, 2014 p. 542). The EHR has the potential to improve the quality and safety of patient care when used correctly. It can improve communication with medication safety. â€Å"EHRs improve safety by reducing adverse drug events with alerts, reminders, and potential drug interactions† (Advanced Practice Nurses’†¦, 2013). An important disadvantage of EHRs are HIPPA violations. Since EHRs allow for easier access to sensitive information, there is an increased risk of privacy violations. â€Å"Security policies must be explicit and well defined† (Zerwekh and Zerwekh Garneau, 2014 p. 535). HIPPA violations are not to be taken lightly, serious consequences can occur. The use of health information technology may improve health care quality,  but it has its disadvantages. Technology is growing and changing constantly, it important to stay informed. The good can out way the bad, as long as policies are followed. References Narcisse, M., Kippenbrock, T. A., Odell, E., and Buron, B. (2013). Advanced Practice Nurses’ Meaningful use of Electronic Health Records, Retrieved from Zerwekh, J., & Zerwekh Garneau, A. (2014). Nursing Today: transitions and trends, Eighth Edition, 535-542.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Look Before You Leap Essay

Frankenstein is not a literary island, isolated and alone. It is connected to a great many literary works by some common themes. One such theme is the idea of experimentation. Mythology in particular and history in general, has shown us that the right to experiment comes with an equal responsibility to stop and think about what we are doing before we do it. Time and time again we have heard the story of Frankenstein. Equally well known is that of Einstein and his search for the secrets of the atom. Both of these show that reckless experimentation without adequate research can prove deadly due to unforeseen results. Victor Frankenstein provides an excellent example of how not to make decisions. This man ran headstrong into every decision he had to make, without at any point stopping to think about what he was doing. He shows us his lack of regard toward the responsibility he clearly had as the creator of the monster. His greatest mistake is when he doesn’t take the time to consider the results of his actions before the initial creation. He then exacerbates his error by abandoning his creation, like the teenage mother who, upon discovering her inability to care for her child, leaves it to fend for itself. Had Victor taken the time to contemplate his actions, he surely would have not created his monster, and he, William, Elizabeth and the rest of his family would have lived in peace. It is pretty basic knowledge that Albert Einstein worked with the scientists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory to facilitate the splitting of the atom, and consequently the development of the atomic bomb and the modern nuclear weapon. What is lesser known is that Einstein realized the result of his possibly misguided actions and immediately began to attempt to ensure that his research not be used. He campaigned within the scientific community, and begged the President not to misuse everything he had spent his life coming up with. In the end, however, 90,000 people died and 180,000 people were injured when the first two atomic weapons were released on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Had Einstein thought through the possible consequences of his work, he likely would never have been involved with the  Manhattan Project. As it was, he lived his life feeling guilty about the loss of life that he felt was his fault. A common archetype of these tales of woe is that with the ability to experiment comes an innate responsibility to consider the consequences of your actions prior to acting on your ideas. History has shown that those who act impulsively eventually succumb to their lack of foresight and live to regret the results.