Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Presentation of Native Americans In Childrens...

The Presentation of Native Americans In Childrens Literature In the 1970s the seed of change began to grow in childrens literature. Because American Indians and knowledgeable cultural anthropologists became authors of childrens books, Native American people and culture is now being seen in a more true and distinguishing light. Literature is immensely important when it comes to learning. There are four areas of development that literature takes a huge part in. The first area is language development, which is very rapid during the preschool years, and becomes more refined as time passes. The second area is cognitive development, and there are basic operations as- sociated : (1)observing; (2)comparing; (3)classifying;†¦show more content†¦The real differences in the Native American culture may be ignored, while others, like violence and alcoholism are seen as their only cultural characteristics. Finally, their culture may be depicted as quaint or superficial, without depth or warmth.(Norton, 533) Native American ceremonies, artifacts and legends may be portrayed as foolish, and not seen as important or positive cultural traits. Any stereotype placed on a person or their culture is wrong and offensive. More literature is being written and illustrated by Native Americans and knowledgeable authorities today, then in the past. On an attached page I have included an annotated bibliography of Native American literature. This bibliography has been reviewed by professionals and declared good reading for children. Good reading for children needs to have a criteria that can be followed. The completion of this criteria will define the literature as positive reading material for children. The following criteria related to literature that represents Black Americans, Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans reflect the recommendations of the Childrens Literature Review Board, Anna Lee Stensland, and the Council on Interracial Books for Children.(Norton, 535) 1. Are Black, Native, Hispanic, and Asian Americans portrayed as unique individuals with their own thoughts, emotions, and philosophies,Show MoreRelated Perpetuation of Native American Stereotypes in Childrens Literature2176 Words   |  9 PagesPerpetuation of Native American Stereotypes in Childrens Literature Caution should be used when selecting books including Native Americans, due to the lasting images that books and pictures provide to children. This paper will examine the portrayal of Native Americans in childrens literature. I will discuss specific stereotypes that are present and should be avoided, as well as positive examples. I will also highlight evaluative criteria that will be useful in selecting appropriateRead MoreEvaluation Of Teaching And Advising Essay1595 Words   |  7 PagesResearch Day (a mini symposium). After each presentation I guide a discussion in which the rest of the students reflect on the scientific content and the form of the presentation always in a professional, constructive and courteous manner. Finally, making use of the capabilities in D2L, all the students and myself provide feedback in the form of an online discussion board, allowing the presenter access to written comments on how to improve the presentation (In addition to peer evaluations, and as aRead MoreEssay about Creating Diversity in the Classroom1950 Words   |  8 PagesLiterature if used correctly can enhance a child’s life. It can become a valuable tool in helping children to understand their home, communities and the world in which they live. Through literature children’s vocabulary, imaginations, and self understanding is bui lt. Children should be exposed to literature that is age appropriate and within the context of learning respect for themselves and others by the diversity of the books. My literature plan is based upon multicultural diversity whichRead MorePurpose Driven Life1328 Words   |  6 PagesI implement in my classroom will affect their ability to succeed. When teaching a lesson to a student with a special need such as cerebral palsy, certain tactics need to be used as outlined in an article by Frank Ricci, a nurse in the ICU at a children’s hospital in Pittsburgh. In this article Ricci describes how to develop an educational program for a unique group of students. This group of students was comprised of 12 members who each had cerebral palsy and of those 12, 7 were in wheelchairs andRead MoreChildrens Lit Task 12371 Words   |  10 PagesPart A. In the past five years, children’s literature has had many common themes. Bullying has been a popular subject of interest at all levels of reading. This trend reflects a rising concern about cyberbullying and the sometimes dramatic effects it can have on a child’s life. Writers and parents are making an effort to show children that what they do to their peers has real consequences and to be mindful with their words and actions. Another popular subject is dystopian futures. This interestRead MoreAnalysis Of Alexie s Poem Alexie 2924 Words   |  12 Pagesmean to be an Indian man? Finally, what does it mean to live on an Indian reservation?’† (Basso). Indeed, he does, but does that necessarily imply that he does a good job of it? Certainly, he moves us beyond the many ridiculous stereotypes of Native Americans, that they’re alcoholics and lazy, that they all live on reservations and receive special treatment from the government, that they’re all chanting medicine men waving rattles (or giant black dildos) in teepees while their child roams throughRead MoreOverview The Hero’s Adventure was created for the reflective professional struggling with2600 Words   |  11 Pagesage of seven, Joseph’s dad took him to a Wild West show and he became infascinated with the naked American Indian. From this point forward, he became consumed with Native American culture. Campbell was immersed in his Catholic rituals while being obsessed with Native Americans. By the time Campbell turned ten, he had consumed himself in every Native American book at his local library in the children’s section that he was admitted to read the adult books. Not long after he had read all of those asRead MoreIncorporating Family Involvement with Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Chinese Americans in Elementary Schools2273 Words   |  10 Pagescultural class. Chinese families entrust their lives with their children’s education because they believe that success in people’s lives is attributed to high academic performance. This indicates that the re is a direct relationship between the family involvement and the Chinese students’ performance. Key Research Literature Language is one of the main factors regarding cultural diversity aspects that influence the education system in American schools. As a foreign student, I still remember a guest speakerRead MoreEmerging From The Restrictive Culture Of The 1950 S Essay1765 Words   |  8 Pagesmainstream society; they sought individual freedom and opportunities for self-determination. But their vision of the American dream widened the traditional definitions of freedom to include bodily, psychological, and political freedoms. 60’s counterculture disagreed with the capitalist, patriarchal, white supremacist foundation of American life and turned against the traditional ideas of american identity in rebellion, seeking freedom and coexistence in an increasingly confined and competitive society. Read MoreThe Effects of Advertising on Children33281 Words   |  134 Pages............................................................................... 9 CTS provisions ................................................................................................................................. 9 Children’s and preschool children’s programs ............................................................................. 9 All C and P programs must be classified by ACMA prior to broadcast. ...................................... 9 Advertising directed to children..

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Historical Concepts Social Justice - 937 Words

Historical Concepts: Social Justice I decided to do option #1, on the critical thinking exercise. The question that was asked was, what I see as the concepts of social justice and criminal justice as being in harmony and/or in conflict. I see racial inequality being a major problem with the criminal justice system. Being African American or any minority in today’s world, is not in your favor. The reason I state this, is there is a lot of raciest in the justice system. There is crimes being committed by individuals exactly the same, but if an African American or minority commits the crime, it will be a longer, and harsher punishment. So why does this happen you might ask yourself? Well as stated in an article I found it states, â€Å"one of the most common scholarly explanations for persistent racial inequities in crime, punishment, and criminal justice is that they represent a continuation of the long history of exclusionary practices in the United States beginning with slav ery; continuing through the Jim Crow South, white flight, and race riots in northern ghettos; and culminating most recently in the prison state† (Miller, 2010). The reason that I believe that most minorities are treated different is because, most minorities live in poverty. For example look at some of the recent cases in history on a minority that has wealth. A great example is O.J. Simpson. This individual is African American, but isn’t living in poverty, and in my opinion got away with murder. HoweverShow MoreRelatedComparison and Analysis of Social Justice in the United States and India1266 Words   |  6 Pagesand Analysis of Social Justice in the United States and India Jessica M. Alstad Argosy University Author Note All correspondence pertaining to this work should be directed to: Jessica Alstad, 4305 Grayson Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46228 Abstract Social justice has multiple definitions depending on the country a person resides in. The definition of social justice in the United States differs from that definition in India. Some of these differences can be attributed to historical values that haveRead MoreThe Priorities Of The United States Public Policy Making Process949 Words   |  4 Pagesunsustainable lifestyles. The environmental issues we face are dispersed unevenly in communities, especially in urban areas among minorities. The unequitable dispersal of environmental hazards, transforms a physical resource problem into one of social justice and political decisions. David Pellow addresses this issue in his book, Garbage Wars, by providing a history of movements, technology, politics, waste management and waste conflicts in the US to create an understanding of how inequalities emergeRead MoreSocial Contract Is The Formidable Obelisk For Peacebuilding And Statebuilding1269 Words   |  6 Pages Social Contract is the formidable obelisk for peacebuilding and statebuilding. One of the oldest and widely cited Social Contract theories is the one of theorist’s John Rawls. His theory proposed an objective perspective of the Social Contract concept that was rooted from medieval Europe, this widely accepted principle that â€Å"all men are by nature free and equal† (Lessnoff, 1990, p. 3) made Rawls disparate to his brethren who too theorized this concept. Rawls rendition of the theory was not onlyRead MoreComparison Of American And Chinese Legal Culture1609 Words   |  7 PagesComparison of American and Chinese legal culture Abstract: The legal culture is a national, regional or national basis in certain social and material conditions, the state power by the creation of a common legal system constraints and determine the status of the legal system of values and attitudes in the whole society and culture. Thus, each country has its own unique legal culture. By selecting the most typical American and Chinese legal cultures of two different aspects: the legal standard, comparativeRead MoreA Theory Of Justice By Rawls1569 Words   |  7 PagesTheory of Justice, Rawls aims to develop a theory of justice that brings new ideas and concepts to the traditional doctrines of philosophy. Rawls’ theory, justice as fairness, wishes to take the ideas of traditional social contract theories to a higher level of abstraction. His theory is thoroughly explained through a pre-societal position called the original position, the notion of the veil of ignorance, and the two principles of justice. Rawls starts out by describing the role of justice in a socialRead MoreRobert Nozick s History And The Constitution Of The Nation1227 Words   |  5 Pagesus that in the state of nature men are entitled on one hand to their lives and safety, and also to self-possession. Inspired by empiricist philosopher John Locke, who proclaimed that natural rights exist and are claimable, Nozick claims that his concept of a minimal state is morally justifiable. â€Å"Only a minimal state, limited to enforcing contracts and protecting people against any force, theft, and fraud, is justified. Any more extensive state violates person’s rights not to be force to do certainRead MoreJustice Means Equality For Equals And Inequality For Unequal s Equality1593 Words   |  7 PagesC.S Lewis once said â€Å"justice means equality for equals and inequality for unequal’s† . To interpret this quote we must first define what justice really means. Justice means giving each person what h e or she deserves. The quote by C.S Lewis states that even though rules and regulation are made for all individuals, in one way or another difference are still made between societies and no one is known about it. In other word, those who are always treated equal, will continue to be treated equally andRead MoreThe Idle Apprentice At Tyburn884 Words   |  4 PagesActivity 2.1 Explore Rakhtin’s concept of the Carnivalesque Mikhall Bakhtin was a Russian Theorist that developed the concept of the carnivalesque. He theorized that the obedient civilians and upper-middle classes regressed into a crude and unsophisticated state and in contrast the subordinates are elevated as a theatrical prop. Rakhtin’s utilized this concept to explore the peasant culture throughout the middle ages and extending into the early modern era. This concept was used to explain the practicesRead MoreJohn Rawls : A Theory Of Justice Essay1339 Words   |  6 Pagesautonomous law. Rawls takes both from historical knowledge and modern experiences to shape his ideas, and he articulates them through one of his most influential books, A Theory of Justice. Through this book he describes the structure or origin of the social-contract tradition in a different view by arguing on behalf of political society through a more liberalism tradition. For example, one of his most distinct views is the role of an original position in the socia l contract The original position isRead More3 Key Differences between Orthodox and Critical Criminologies762 Words   |  3 Pagesto more than one force, like social, particular gender, class, race and culture. (15) For example as a radical criminologist focus on the relationship between social class and homicide, they must also identify that it s the poor men of colour living in a society that has cultural admiration for violence. (15) A third and final difference is that radical criminologists have a resistance to current dominant ideas. Rather than giving into dominant ideas of crime and justice radical criminologists fight

Friday, December 13, 2019

Essay About Politics Free Essays

In Regeneration Pat Barker utilises the character of Burns as a way of presenting the extent to which the society have managed to damage the young soldiers. Burns is a fictional character used as an extreme case in Craiglockhart Hospital that presents the emotional destruction that all soldiers feel and further enhances the strain from society on Burns individually shown in the actions he uses to demonstrate a severe deterioration. It is clear that the war is continuously playing on the mind of Burns in this extract by the militaristic imagery he uses when describing, what to other members of society, would be simply a normal walk around. We will write a custom essay sample on Essay About Politics or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the bus journey first of all he describes the rattle of branches on the bus windows as sounding like ‘machine-gun fire’, which depicts the constant reminder he faces of the front line. The reaction of Burns trying not to be caught ‘crying out’ having heard these sounds suggests just how stressful being reminded of war in any way can be. Throughout this extract Burns also shows the discontent he feels and the struggle he faces to do the simplest of tasks such as walking up a hill. Barker refers to Burns’ struggle as ‘climbing the hill between trees’. The clever use of ‘climbing’ suggests the physical struggle he faces but also draws parallel with the feeling of climbing in and out of trenches on the western front that he formally faced, therefore hints at the idea that being reintegrated into British society was as much a â€Å"war† as it was when fighting on the western front. Again Pat Barker manages to show Burns facing the mirrored difficulties of war when he is ‘slipping and stumbling’ in ‘his mud-encumbered boots’ just like if he was in the harsh conditions of war. However we know that actually the ‘ploughed field’ he was walking through was nowhere near as difficult to travel through as in the western front which highlights how he has got far worse since returning which could possibly be due to the added pressure of society that he has been unable to adapt to life back home. Another key indicator that displays the pressure that has affected the character of Burns is the physical strains he faces. He depicts the discomfort with human contact so he ‘tensed, not liking the contact’ which indicates the disconnection he feels from society. Barker also further illustrates the dissatisfaction with life in general with his very pessimistic reflection on the day at the beginning. Looking at his room window he envisaged a ‘blurred landscape’ and the ‘sky and hills’ dissolved ‘together in a wash of grey’. The ‘grey’ and ‘blurred’ landscape that would have realistically have held much greater detail in rural Scotland- where Craiglockhart was located- shows the insignificance of the surrounding world for these struggling soldiers. These dull adjectives simply underline the feeling of being fed up that Burn would have felt having being withdrawn from war and now has understood that he no longer has much meaning in life due to the societal pressure forced upon him. The feeling of being fed up that Burns portrays is seen through his dislike for spending time with others in the ‘common room’. He describes the talk as ‘facetious tones’ describing how he does not care what people have to say as it does not wish to spend time socialising with others due to the domino effect that he feels alienated from society. The men appear to sit around the ‘common room’ and talk about ‘the war, the war, the war’ showing how annoyed he is that this is all people talk about. The repetition of ‘the’ shows that this was the single most important thing of the time and this has left Burns feeling annoyed that he would rather just disconnect himself from everyone instead of feel pigeonholed to only talk about such a distressful topic. As Billy Prior mentions later on in the novel this club ‘will be the club to end all clubs’ whereas Burns clearly does not comply with this. Physical strain on him. Paranoid- everything is against him. Possibly signs of disconnection from society leaving him emotionless. Conclusion. Print bibliography and photocopy extract. How to cite Essay About Politics, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Martha Graham The Picasso of Dance Essay Example For Students

Martha Graham The Picasso of Dance Essay In the early 1900s, in order to be considered a legitimate art form, dance was expected to be graceful and beautiful, and because of this, ballet was the most accepted and appreciated dancing medium. At this time, in Allegheny City, lived a girl who dreamed of being a dancer. While worshiping Ruth St. Denis, Martha Graham bloomed into the Picasso of Dance, and initiated the modern dance movement. Through this movement, Martha Graham used her: attitude, theater, and unique technique, to rebel against the common traditions of dancing, and created a modern technique which transformed the realm of dance to represent more than just beauty. We will write a custom essay on Martha Graham The Picasso of Dance specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Unlike other dancers, Graham did not care for what the critics approved of or what was expected of her, which helped establish her unpredictable reputation as a dancer. Using her irrational attitude to her advantage, she succeeded in creating a dance form that was real and not focused on projecting only beauty. In her autobiography, Graham described how when choosing whether to represent beauty or the eccentric nature of every woman, â€Å"in each character , played according to what she felt was the wild one† (Graham 58). This unconventional objective of hers was out of the ordinary, since more emphasis was placed on what was appealing to one’s eye. Graceful movements and elaborate costumes were used in order to enhance the beauty of ballet, and yet Graham’s distinct perspective on how modern dance should follow â€Å"modern painters and architects in discarding decorative essentials and fancy trimmings† in order to prove how â€Å" dance was not to be ‘pretty’ but much more real (Graham 120). For example, while working in the Greenwich Village Follies, Graham would never wear any type of revealing garment, because she truly believed as a dancer she will allow her work speak for itself since she â€Å" not a showgirl† (Graham 95). Her bold attitude towards the costumes she would wear whenever she danced with the Follies, created a more artistic feel to her dance, instead of relying on what would please the audience most to see the dancers in. Whether it is pure genius or the inclination to be wild, Graham inspired many of her dancers to embrace dismal clothing and forced their movements to paint a contemporary picture, which later became a form of art. Through her use of theater, Graham set the stage for dramatic movements that not only expressed various issues of the time, but also a powerful meaning in every gesture a dancer would form. With every ballet, Graham taught the audience a life lesson, using her essence of drama. In El Penitente, her ballet of 1940, she illustrated how every woman who â€Å"is worth anything† has three phases to her personality, which were the qualities of â€Å"being a virgin, of being the temptress-prostitute, of being the mother† (Graham 26). Whenever an audience would come to see Graham in her natural habitat, somehow a deeper meaning to the show was always evident. A huge impact was seen on the modern dance movement, since now dance was characterized as a form of art that allows symbolic or purposeful meanings behind every gesture. In this way, Graham became a triumphant figure in society by communicating her ideas of what women should be seen as, or even what she viewed real beauty as. Using her strict belief of how â€Å"dance is the foundation of theatre,† Graham would entice the audience to look past superficial beauty and see the truth behind rigid movements (Graham 106). In reference to the drama used in El Penitente, critics acclaimed how the â€Å"two-dimensional look of painted images, its shapes and colors reminiscent of work by Georgia O’Keeffe,† and how every dancer almost fit the image of a painted part of nature (Dunning 1). Graham’s use of theater was strange and unique because in most forms of dance at the time, dancers would stay away from two-dimensional shapes in order to create a ballet which would fill the stage completely and seem artistic (Dunning 1). .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f , .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .postImageUrl , .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f , .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:hover , .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:visited , .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:active { border:0!important; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:active , .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8185f1ffb4d1970cf5c598ddb8dbef5f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Pablo Picasso "Girl with a Mandolin"- Cubism Movement EssayThe modern dance movement was positively impacted by Graham’s theater skills to give every performance another meaning besides superficial beauty. Graham created her own technique, which is specific to modern dance choreography and is the foundation of the modern dance movement. In order to properly become attuned to the muscles in her body, Graham created the shifting of a dancer’s weight as a prime technique all modern dancers needed to master. As described by Graham herself, the technique â€Å"would later evolve the weight is shifted in the strange animal way that is not ballet but contemporary dance,† which at first was very foreign to all dancer who would attempt such a strategy (Graham 104). Upon hearing of such a technique, even George Balanchine had stated how Graham created her own â€Å"classical technique,† which is very important to modern dance since this weight shifting technique allows dancers to tap into the nature of their bodies and become one with nature, in a sense (Graham 104). Using her momentum, Graham would use physics and anatomy to her advantage whenever she choreographed any performances. Graham impacted the modern dance movement greatly because she created a different technique in which dancers still use even today, especially in contemporary dances. Through the shifting of weight, Graham successfully paved the way for dancers to use real movement to create a contemporary dance style. In conclusion, Graham always was able to leave the audience in awe of her brilliance whenever she performed. Her choreography created the modern dance movement, and allowed dancers to explore areas of dance which were alien to them. Through her: attitude, theater, and technique, Graham really made a difference to the dancing realm and became an inspiration for countless years to come. Due to Graham’s accomplishments, people of the time began to alter their perception of dance to reflect not only how dance can be beautiful, but also how modern dance is a form of art. Bibliography: 1. Dunning, Jennifer. Dance: El Penitente, By Graham. New York Times 5 June 1986, n. pag. 15 Sep. 2013. 2. Graham, Martha. Blood Memory. Doubleday, 1991. print.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Capital Punishment Essays (1690 words) - Human Rights,

Capital Punishment Capital Punishment: An Eye For An Eye? In the United States, the use of the death penalty continues to be a controversial issue. Every election year, politicians, wishing to appeal to the moral sentiments of voters, routinely compete with each other as to who will be toughest in extending the death penalty to those persons who have been convicted of first-degree murder. Both proponents and opponents of capital punishment present compelling arguments to support their claims. Often their arguments are made on different interpretations of what is moral in a just society. In this essay, I intend to present major arguments of those who support the death penalty and those who are opposed to state sanctioned executions. I do not pretend to be neutral on the issue; the application of the death penalty is the ultimate and irreversible sanction. However, I do intend to fairly and accurately represent both sides of the argument. Proponents of capital punishment persuasively argue that a central principle of a just society is that every person has an equal right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (Cauthen, p 1). Within this principle, the deliberate (premeditated) murder of an individual is viewed as a heinous act, which prevents the person from realizing his or her right to pursue happiness. They strongly feel that persons convicted of first-degree murder must, themselves, pay the ultimate price. They claim that the death penalty must be imposed in order to maintain the moral standards of the community. Proponents of capital punishment are aware that many people who oppose the death penalty are fearful that innocent people may be wrongfully executed. They insist, however, that numerous safeguards are built into the criminal justice system which insures the protection of those facing capital punishment. Among the safeguards are: 1. Capital punishment may be imposed only for a crime for which the death penalty is prescribe by law at the time of its commission. 2. Persons below eighteen years of age, pregnant women, new mothers or persons who have become insane shall not be sentenced to death. 3. Capital punishment may be imposed only when guilt is determined by clear and convincing evidence leaving no room for an alternative explanation of the facts. 4. Capital punishment may be carried out only after a final judgment rendered by a competent court allowing all possible safeguards to the defendant, including adequate legal assistance. 5. Anyone sentenced to death shall receive the right to appeal to a court of higher jurisdiction. 6. Capital punishment shall not be carried out pending any appeal, recourse procedure or proceeding relating to pardon or commutation of the sentenced. (www. 1) In view of these safeguards, proponents of capital punishment believe that state executions are justified sentences for those convicted of willful first-degree murder. They do not think sentencing murderers to prison is a harsh enough sentence, especially if there is the possibility of parole for the perpetrator. A final argument posed by proponents of the death penalty is that execution is an effective deterrence. They are convinced that potential murderers will likely think twice before they commit murder. Despite the rhetoric of politicians for the increased use of the death penalty, a number of prominent individuals and organizations have emerged to express their opposition to capital punishment. Along with families of death row prisoners, the International Court of The Hague, the United Nations, Amnesty International, the Texas Conference of Churches, Pope John Paul II, Nobel Peace recipient, Bishop Tutu, numerous judges and former prosecutors, former Attorney General, Ramsey Clark, actors, and writers are waging a determined struggle against the death penalty. They invariably argue that capital punishment is wrong and inhumane. Religious folk generally evoke the nature of an ideal spiritual community (Cauthen, 1). Within this perspective, a moral and ethical community does not insist on a life for a life. While a community must act to protect law- abiding citizens, an ethical response would be to imprison persons who have demonstrated a flagrant disrespect for life, without the pos sibility of parole, if necessary. Cauthen states, An ideal community would show mercy even to those who had shown no mercy (Capital Punishment 2). Most opponents of the death penalty

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Election of Byron Looper and Tommy Burks essays

The Election of Byron Looper and Tommy Burks essays In 1998, an election for state Senate ended up being the worst election that Tennessee had ever witnessed. Throughout the years, this election is the one that everyone will remember for a long time. Going through an election can be very stressful and hard, but nothing could give someone a reason to murder another person, to win an election. In 1998, there were many candidates running for election in October. One of the most popular elections that were going on at this time was the state senate. Two men by the names of Tommy Burks and Byron Looper were both in the race. Byron Looper was forty-seven years old with a wife and two kids. This was the first election he had ever run for, dealing with the state senate. At the age of fifty-eight, Tommy Burks served four terms in the state House of Representatives before being elected to the Senate in 1978 (Thompson 2). He was running for re-election to the Senate in the 1998 election. Senator Burks was respected for his honesty and hard wor k, both in his farming operation and his work in the state legislature. He was a 1963 graduate of Tennessee Technological University and had been honored by the University with awards. Tommy Burks also served as a director of the TTU Agriculture Foundation (Thompson 2). On October 19, 1998 State Senator Tommy Burks was murdered on a road on his farm just east of Monterey, TN., preparing to take a local school children on a field trip to his pumpkin patch (Fleming 1). Thus showing Tennessee how he cared about kids in the community and his love for his occupation. Tommy Burks, a longtime state legislator, was a farmer and was on his way to his barn, traveling along a road near the section of the large farm Where his daughter, Kim Blaylock, lives when he was shot to death. Senator Tommy Burks was found sitting in his Pickup truck on the road to the barn (Fleming 1). News agencies were reporting that Burks was shot twice, one in the chest, the other, i...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Company Law for Accounts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

The Company Law for Accounts - Essay Example In case a promoter makes a profit secretly, the company may commence a legal action for rescission or recovery of the profits made secretly. This promoter is assumed to have executed without utmost good faith. This means that disclosure of their activities is the most important issue and they must work within the objectives of the promoters and must use their skills knowledge for the best of the firm (Siddharthacadey, 2010).A promoter is any person involved in the planning to incorporate or initiate a running of a company, other than persons involved in a purely professional capacity. A promoter need not necessarily be the main person behind the incorporation, but he must have some executive function. The stereotype of a company and sells his business to it is a promoter. A promoter has a fiduciary duty to the company he is forming and this requires him to disclose all profits he makes during the promotion of the company...The courts have established the principle that a promoter stands in a fiduciary relationship with the company, which he is forming. This does not mean that he is barred from making a profit out of the promotion. It means that any profit made must be disclosed to the company. Breach of promoters’ duty If a promoter makes a profit and fails to disclose he breaches his duty of fiduciary. In the event of non- disclosure of profits the company may commence proceedings for rescission or for recovery of the undisclosed profits. The case study The case at hand is that Candy received a gift that he did not disclose to the other promoters. Therefore, he should be compelled to rescind the property to the company. The law prohibits individuals from unjustly enriching themselves at the expense of other partners. The other party should be compensated adequately to act as consideration. However, it should be noted that not all instances that parties are required to make compensated. In the case of unformed company the promoter is required to disclose rather compensate. In contract law, the pre-incorporation contracts are not enforceable, but the benefit accruing from it is disclosable. Being the fiduciary person Candy had certain legal obligations to fulfil towards the beneficiary. However, the very moment the Candy has taken a wrong approach of lying company, the bond of fiduciary relationship has been violated. This was confirmed in the case of Gluckstein v Barnes [1900]. In the case promoters had made profits before incorporation but they failed to disclose this fact. In their case, they misrepresented facts in prospectus that they were to buy a property at certain amount which they were unable to raise.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Corporate Finance ------ Analytical report Essay

Corporate Finance ------ Analytical report - Essay Example Let's begin by taking a closer look at the board of governors and what its members do. Together, management and the board of governors have the ultimate goal of maximizing shareholder value. In theory, management looks after the day-to-day operations, and the board ensures that shareholders are adequately represented. But the reality is that many boards are made up of management. The company Adobe Systems Inc., has a good balance between internal and external board members. Other good signs within Adobe Systems are the separation of CEO and chairman roles and an assortment of professional expertise of the board from accountant, attorney and executives. It's boards comprised of the current CEO (who is chairman), the CFO and the COO, along with the retired CEO, etc. This does not necessarily signal that the company is a bad investment, but, as a shareholder, it should question whether or not such a corporate structure is in shareholder best interests. The interaction between Financial Markets and Corporate Governance Corporate governance is merely one feature of the superior framework of macroeconomic policies, global capital, products and labour markets, competition, cultural norms, ethics, tax policy and diverse state regulatory systems. The expansion of global capital markets has shaped the potential for superior access to a bigger investor pool. However, the prime attraction of long-term patient capital, if it is domestic or international, the ability to offer corporate governance systems that are clearly expressed within regulatory and legal frameworks that support contractual and ownership rights. The importance of global capital markets and the governance debate continues to a purely property based regime with private property by which resources are used efficiently in our society. Global Financial markets focuses on the need to protect those property rights under vastly differing legal and political regimes, correlating shareholder protection and developed external capital markets. Capital markets are key to economic development. Economies, particularly in those nation states that are emerging or transitional, need foreign capital to make the investments necessary to generate wealth. Developed market economies also require additional capital to meet product and other market changes, and to ensure that they are globally competitive. Transparency of Corporate Governance Norms Provide Market Information Accounting principles differ from country to country, with differences often reflecting varying business practices, reporting practices and disclosure preferences. For corporate governance to be effective, official regulation of public disclosure will produce company information that is accurate, complete and timely. Interestingly and transparency of corporate governance norms are widely accepted capital market requirement. Disclosure and transparency requirements allow shareholders to monitor the use of their equity capital, enhancing board accountability mechanisms. Institutional investors such as pension funds are increasingly likely to use these transparency guarantees

Monday, November 18, 2019

A grammar test to an intermediate level Assignment

A grammar test to an intermediate level - Assignment Example For a longtime teachers have had a hard time trying to determine whether their students have grasped the various learning concepts tests were therefore introduced to enable teachers asses the learning levels of their students (Harmer 2007, Pg 2). Prior to any testing exercise, teachers often put many factors into consideration, such, may include the age of the students, the topics covered under study. One of the importances of testing the intermediate students English language levels is that it helps the teacher make various decisions regarding the teaching models to use.   Teachers have various styles of teaching and such may affect the students understanding of the given topic (Hughes 1989, pg 15).   The testing therefore enables teachers to tailor their teaching styles to fit the students that are being taught. In the face of ever changing English and language developments, the testing of students gives them exposure to these changes. Students at intermediate levels may not ha ve so much grasp and command of the English language, however, through testing the teachers may introduce elements that will be suitable for their learning (Yule, 2000 Pg 17). Therefore, testing of this kind allows the teacher to determine what the learners ought to know and the various changes that are talking place in the English language. Through testing, the teacher will be able to know the various interests of the learners especially in regards to the learning styles applicable in teaching them.   For instances students that are convergers.... Prior to any testing exercise, teachers often put many factors into consideration, such, may include the age of the students, the topics covered under study. One of the importances of testing the intermediate students English language levels is that it helps the teacher make various decisions regarding the teaching models to use. Teachers have various styles of teaching and such may affect the students understanding of the given topic (Hughes 1989, pg 15). The testing therefore enables teachers to tailor their teaching styles to fit the students that are being taught. In the face of ever changing English and language developments, the testing of students gives them exposure to these changes. Students at intermediate levels may not have so much grasp and command of the English language, however, through testing the teachers may introduce elements that will be suitable for their learning (Yule, 2000 Pg 17). Therefore, testing of this kind allows the teacher to determine what the learne rs ought to know and the various changes that are talking place in the English language. Through testing, the teacher will be able to know the various interests of the learners especially in regards to the learning styles applicable in teaching them. For instances students that are convergers are often solitary and may not like learning in the same environment as the others (Yule, 2000 Pg 17). Through this the teacher will be in a position to identify the conformist students who have preference to studying the language rather than using the language. Others like concrete learners and the communicative learners will also be identified and the teacher will come up with various teaching models that are suitable for them. Having knowledge on the type of students in your

Friday, November 15, 2019

Marketing Essays Starbucks Coffee

Marketing Essays Starbucks Coffee Starbucks Coffee Starbucks Coffee company is headquartered in Seattle, Washington. It began in 1971 with just one retail store at Seattles historic Pike Place Market. Now it has become the leading brand and retailer in the world. Starbucks went public on June 26, 1992. The main aim of Starbucks is to become the leading brand and retailer of finest coffee in each of its target markets nationally and internationally by selling the best quality coffee and related products, and by providing high class customer service. Starbucks purchases and roasts a high quality whole bean coffees to sell them with fresh, rich-brewed espresso beverages, different varieties of pastries and coffee related accessories and equipments ( Moreover Starbucks also sells coffee and tea products strategically through other channels such as supermarkets and non traditional retail channels such as United Airlines, Marriott International, Barnes Noble bookstores and Department stores. More than quality coffee, Starbucks features a variety of hand-crafted beverages, pastries and in some markets, a selection of sandwiches and salads. Starbucks merchandise includes exclusive espresso machines and coffee brewers, unique confections and other items related to coffee and tea. Some of the Starbucks products are as follows; Beverages: Brewed coffees, Italian-style espresso, cold blended beverages, roasted whole bean coffees, tea products, fruit juice, sodas, and coffee liqueur. Food: Sandwich, Salads, pastries and ice creams Non food items: Mugs, Travel tumblers, coffeemakers, coffee grinders, storage containers, compact discs, games, seasonal novelty items, Starbucks card, media bar. Starbuckss main mission is to be a global company. In order to achieve this it needs, the development strategy that Starbucks implemented to adapt with variety market and local need are: joint ventures, licenses and company owned operation. The total number of Starbucks stores are 15,011 which are operated and 3,891 are licensed operation in US which are spread out in 50 states. For the international location, Starbucks’ store can be found in 44 countries outside of the United States and 1,049 stores are company owned operated in Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Singapore, Thailand and the U.K. and 6,506 are joint ventures and licensed operation. Internationally Starbucks opened their stores in the following countries; Starbucks open in Tokyo, Japan. Nowadays, there are more than 700 retails shops in Japan. Furthermore, Starbucks also open in Hawaii and Singapore. Starbucks open in Philippines Starbucks open in U.K., Taiwan, Thailand, New Zealand and Malaysia. Starbucks open in Beijing, Kuwait, South Korea and Lebanon. Starbucks open in United Arab Emirates, Shanghai, Australia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Starbucks open in Switzerland and Austria. Starbucks open in Oman, Germany, Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Southern China, Macao and Shenzhen, Greece and Indonesia. Starbucks open in Turkey, Peru, Chile and Cyprus. Expansion to France The latest expansion in Jordan 5 Ps for Starbucks Coffee Company Starbucks is not just a good cup of fresh coffee, but a better quality product, excellent customer service and better understanding of coffee culture. Starbucks has so far achieved unpredictable achievements in coffee chain industry. Now we will go through the strategies of 5 Ps, price, product, place, promotion and people. Price: The Starbucks prices continuously matches with its competitors competitively represents Starbucks an attractive combination of features, high quality, excellent service and other attractive attributes. Product: Starbucks is known very well in the market due to its high quality coffee, care in selection and expertise in roast. It purchases coffees that have been grown and processed which meets strict environmental, economical, social and quality standards, which is suitable appropriate for the market and the customers. Starbucks establishes its longer lasting and more profitable competitive advantages by broadly differentiating its coffee and coffee related products depending upon its competence and innovation. Place: The decisions of Starbucks about where to site its stores depends on reaching its potential customers and providing better service to its existing customers. Its stores are typically clustered in high-traffic, high visibility locations. When it opens a new store near an established Starbucks, it is generally intended to relieve long customer lines and improve service. It takes more than just location to be successful. Attracting customers to Starbucks happens by providing high-quality coffee as well as creating inviting, comfortable places located in convenient location. The store expansion strategy for Starbucks is by entering new markets wherever the opportunity exists to become the leading specialty coffee retailer. Its current location totals 8,505 worldwide by the year 2007. Promotion: There is not much conventional advertising because Starbucks found that there is too much competition for consumers attention in TV, radio and print media. Starbucks usually picks one or two charities or events that reach the community it serves. This will inspire people inside and outside the company and reinforce the companys value and image. For instance, after September 11, stores in New York, Washington D.C and Pennsylvania brewed coffee free of cost for relief workers. People: One of the strategy of Starbucks is to believe that the Company is in the people development business as well as in the coffee business. As stated in its mission Provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity, Starbucks realizes that one of the most important resources contributing to success is their employees or partners as referred by the Company. Starbucks is attempting to imbed its values in the Company culture. They use these values to give employees a sense of meaning to their work even if it is just pouring a cup of coffee. The coffee chain provides medical, dental and vision coverage to all employees, even including part-timers. The part- time partners are also eligible for the companys stock program. The purpose is to instill in its partners a sense of purpose, commitment, loyalty and enthusiasm. Expectedly, what Starbucks benefits are the reduced recruiting and training costs. Get help with your essay from our expert essay writers ‘PESTLE’ Analysis for Starbucks Coffee Company Political: High taxation imposed on farmers in those countries producing the coffee bean will usually mean Starbucks pay a higher price for the coffee they purchase. Any fluctuations in taxation levels in the industry are almost certainly ultimately passed on to the consumer. Trade issues will affect Starbucks predominantly when exporting and importing goods. When another country’s government imposes a tariff it not only results in an efficiency loss for Starbucks but large income transfers can become inconsistent with equity. This extra charge can turn a bargain into a rip-off. Also, since 9/11, trade relations have been adversely affected between the USA and some other countries. Starbucks should thoroughly investigate the political stability of any country they plan to expand to. Changes in government can lead to changes in taxation and legislation. The American elections may have an effect on Starbucks as new legislation or new or existing government may bring in taxes. Also, those countries in political turmoil or civil war (e.g. Zimbabwe at present) should be approached with great caution when considering new ventures. The international economy must be brought into consideration as it can affect Starbucks’ sales and markets. The aftermath of 9/11 was an example of an economic downturn that affected the world market. A reduction in licensing and permit costs in those countries producing the coffee bean for Starbucks would lower production costs for farmers. This saving would in turn be passed on to the purchaser. Economic: A rise in interest rates means investment and expansion plans are put off resulting in falling sales for Starbucks and their suppliers. Also mortgage repayments rise so consumers have less disposable income to spend on luxury products such as coffee. Low interest rates will have the opposite effect of it. If growth is low in the nation of location of Starbucks then sales may also fall. Consumer incomes tend to fall in periods of negative growth leaving less disposable income. Consumer confidence in products can also fall if the economic situation is bad. Competitive pricing from competitors can start a price war for Starbucks that can drive down profits and profit margins as they attempt to increase, or at least maintain, their share of the market. Globalisation of the coffee market has meant farmers of the bean now earn less money than they used to. This can result in a decrease of people willing to do it for a living, which will mean a decrease in coffee produced, resulting in a drop in Starbucks supply levels and probably profits. Starbucks are affected by exchange rates when dealing with international trade. If the value of the currency falls in the country of a coffee supplier this enables Starbucks to get more for their $ or  £ when importing the goods to their country. This saving can be passed along to the customer. Exchange rates are forever changing throughout the world in today’s market. Social: Where income is distributed is another factor that Starbucks should look at as this also demonstrates the ideal place to aim their marketing or to locate their stores. Coffee is more of a luxury product so it is those people/places with the most amount of disposable income to spend that should be targeted the most intensely. Starbucks would not want to locate to an area where the local population have a poor attitude to work. Recruitment would be difficult, training arduous, and staff turnover would be high. Attitudes to work are important in other ways. Transport needs to the premises must be considered for both staff and customers. Easy access is vital to ensure there is no excuse for staff to arrive late or for customers not to visit. Research shows the average age of the population is getting older and birth rates are stagnating. Starbucks is presently aiming it’s product at young people but maybe these views will change in the long-term as the market proportion for young people diminishes. The most profitable way forward may be to widen their target market despite the risk of alienating present customers. Technological: Developments in the technology of coffee making machines and the computers that Starbucks use to run their cash registers will enable their staff to work more quickly and efficiently. This will result in customers being served quicker and create the potential to serve more customers in a day. In the short-term, Starbucks must identify the most efficient software upgrades to use to keep up with the competition. This applies to the improving the accessibility of their website ( and also improving the speed and quality of the service provided on the shop floor. As a multi-national business empire, Starbucks has the budget and the resources to have a cutting-edge RD department. The website is very accessible, the facilities are state of the art but more importantly new ideas are consistently being tried in terms of a constantly updating menu. The rate of technological change in the current world market is high, much higher than, say, thirty years ago. Much of this is down to the Internet and the speed with which information can be communicated around the globe. Starbucks will need to invest heavily just to stand still in their ever expanding and developing market, and even more so to try to stay ahead of competitors. Legal: Starbucks need to be aware of the trade laws in the various countries they occupy and do business with. They need to ensure they are not in violation of e.g., religious laws. Also, certain countries impose a tariff that has to be paid when goods are imported/exported so this must be taken into account. Each country has varying employment laws. Some may have a Sabbath day, some may have a limit on the number of hours an employee may work per week, and all will have varying levels of minimum wage. Starbucks should consider these factors when deciding on relocation. Starbucks may have to abide by local planning regulations when building shops or altering purchased sites, as certain areas of land may be protected or unsuitable. All matters would be addressed by the local government. Environmental: Starbucks customers create a lot of waste as they often leave the shop with their cup of coffee and then dispose of it in the street. The packaging for this cup must be carefully considered to make it as biologically degradable as possible. Certain other materials can be very harmful to the natural environment. Planning permission may not be granted if Starbucks wish to build in an area that could be harmful to the environment. The land may be protected. Starbucks need to carefully consider the methods in which they dispose of their waste as there are strict laws in most countries to ensure a firm trading in their country disposes of the waste that is created in their business in a specific and efficient way. Starbucks should be aware of the physical and influential power of groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. Find out how our expert essay writers can help you with your work ‘SWOT’ Analysis for Starbucks Coffee Company Strength: Strong brand name and image The reputation of brand name and image of Starbucks allow brand recognition and consumer retention. Therefore, the expanding of stores to other countries is more proficient and easier. Healthy financial performance The financial performance of company has positive aspects. The revenues of Starbucks in 2007 were $9.411 billion, growing at about 30 percent. The exponential growth in revenue and profit creates the strong financial statement and reliability to shareholders. High-skilled management team Starbucks has highly skilled and professional Chief executive officers (CEOs), for example, Howard Schultz, Orin Smith and Howard Behar. These lead to the rapid and stable growth of Starbucks. High technology Starbucks brings the technology to use in the stores in order to attract more customers. For instance, there are high-speed internet, website and prepaid Starbucks card. It might be increase traffic in the stores particularly in new generation group. High quality and innovation of products Starbucks uses high quality of coffee beans and dairy goods. Furthermore, new products are usually introduced by Starbucks including coffee and beverage line. Both of them enable Starbucks to be able to maintain level of sales and keep competitors out. Weakness: High price Starbucks has increased the price due to rising cost of production, including cost of dairy goods and cost of rent. The increase of price might have an effect on the falling of sales and customer retention directly Clusters of store Because Starbucks has a lot of stores and also these are located in closed areas, it leads to the scramble of customers in each store. Clusters of store might cause inefficient performance of the company. Opportunities: Large consumer group China has the biggest world’s population. Coffee drinking is more popular among young generation, especially those who have overseas education, which influences the coffee consumption. Many of these teenagers have lived in western countries for a long time and they have familiar with the coffee culture. When returning to China they have carried on living in this fashion. Chinese teenagers also like to choose western style coffee shops as their favorite place. Lifestyle Modern lifestyle of Chinese teenagers and adults supports the proliferation of western coffee shops. Meeting and discussing business in a warm and nicely designed coffee shop have become more popular in China. Consequently, the teahouse’s domination has been challenged by the foreign coffee house. Threats: Competitors The global coffee market is a very competitive sector. Starbucks is facing the increase of competitions from other foreign players. The latest Starbucks’ competitor is Canadian chain Blenz Coffee, which plans to open a string of cafà © in China where consumers can smoke, while Starbucks is non smoke stores. Intellectual-property violation Starbucks filed a lawsuit for trademark infringement against Shanghai Xingbake which signs, logos and names similar to Starbucks. It would seem that chances of consumer confusion are high. Porters Five Forces Analysis Porter’s five forces analysis is an important tool for analyzing an organizations industry structure in strategic processes. It helps the marketer to contrast a competitive environment. It tends to focus on the single, stand alone, business or SBU (Strategic Business Unit) rather than a single product or range of products. Porter has identified five competitive forces that shape every industry and every market. These are: The threat of entry, The power of buyers, The power of suppliers, The threat of substitutes and Competitive rivalry. The threat of entry: The threat of entry covers: Economies of scale, The high or low cost of entry, Ease of access to distribution channels, Cost advantages not related to the size of the company, Whether competitors will retaliate? Government action and How important differentiation is. There will always be a continuous pressure for Starbucks to react and adjust to these new entrants. The easier it is for new entrants to enter the market the more competition there is within the market. Although this really should not pose too much of a problem for Starbucks as they have a very large share of the market that will be relatively immune to the threat of new entrants. Starbucks is a company that have years of experience in roasting specialised coffee, if a company was to enter the coffee industry it would be extremely difficult for them to offer the same quality of coffee at a competitive price. As a company’s volume increases, so does its experience and knowledge which tends to decrease the cost of their products The power of buyers: Buyer power is likely to be high if a number of conditions are in place. There is a concentration of buyers, particularly if the volumes of purchases of the buyers are high, the supplying industry comprises a large number of small operators, there are alternative sources of supply, the component or material cost is a high percentage of total cost, the cost of switching a supplier is low or involves little risk, there is a threat of backward integration by the buyer. This is high where there a few, large players in a market If there are a large number of undifferentiated, small suppliers The cost of switching between suppliers is low for Starbucks. The power of suppliers: If the market is dominated by few large suppliers rather than numerous fragmented sources, a suppliers bargaining power is likely to be high. Although suppliers do have certain amounts of power, it is limited. With Starbucks being ‘the most famous specialty coffee shop chain in the world’ and still expanding they should still be requiring coffee beans for some time. It is safe to say that the Suppliers need Starbucks, just as much, if not more so than Starbucks need their supplies. Fortunately for Starbucks they buy their coffee beans directly from producing countries: Latin America (50%), Pacific Rim (35%) and East Africa (15%). The threat of substitutes: This occurs where there is product-for-product substitution, where there is a substitution of need e.g. a bald head reduces the need for hair gel, where there is generic substitution and finally the attitude ‘we could always do without. An example for Starbucks would be if an alternative to coffee was offered e.g. a customer switching from coffee to tea. Competitive rivalary: Numerous factors contribute to intense rivalry between existing competitors in an industry. This is most likely to be high where entry is likely; there is the threat of substitute products, and suppliers and buyers in the market attempt to control. This is why it is found in the centre of the diagram. The extent to which competitors are in balance, this is where competitors are of an equal size which creates intense competition as one of the competitors tries to gain dominance over the other, high fixed costs in an industry may result in price wars, differentiation is important as in a commodity market where products or services are undifferentiated there is little to stop customers switching between competitors. Starbucks do not really have any competitive rivals that are of similar size to them so there are not any rivals in the market that would be considered in balance with them. However, they must maintain their excellent standards and always be on the lookout for new innovation s in order to stay as the market leader. Competitor Analysis Competition is steadily growing against Starbucks each year as the industry grows. Competitors look to gain an advantage by price cuts, launching a rival product, aggressive expansion of production to increase market share or inclusion of significant modifications to a product that other competitors must also undertake to keep up. The following are the current figures showing the market share of companies in the coffee industry. 35% Starbucks 20% Local Coffee Outlets 14% Internet Cyber Cafes 13% Caffe Nero 10% Costa Coffee 8% Coffee Republic Culture Model The culture of an organisation is the set of values that helps its stakeholders understand what the organisation stands for, how it does things and what it considers important. Under culture model, we are going to explain the communication and decision making of Starbucks. The Organisation its environment (Source: Davidson, 2002 pg. 73 Figure 3.1 In the diagram (above), owner created the company objective for Starbucks and the boarder of directors is going to lead company to achieve that company objective. Therefore, the boarder of directors has to choose the suitable organisation culture environment for Starbucks in order to achieve the company objective. The Value System The value system is the inter-organisational links that are vital in the creation of the product or service of a company. It follows the production of the service/product from raw material stage right through to the customer purchase. Each instruction for the development of the product is detailed and explained at each stage of the value system. The ‘firm value chain’ is the most important to a manager because that is their company, however, a good manager will understand the whole process and how to manage each individual link and relationship to maximise customer value. Managers should also need to learn the whole value system because most of the cost and value creation occurs in the supply and distribution chains. For Starbucks, the ‘supplier value chain’ deals with where they get the coffee beans from that they use to create their end product – a cup of coffee. Starbucks buy all their beans direct from the farmers in the producing countries cutting out any middle-man therefore keeping prices to a minimum. The countries that supply them can be found in Latin America, East Africa and on the Pacific Rim. Starbucks fully appreciate the need to oversee all aspects of the value system and we can see an example of this in their determination to obtain the highly sought Narino Supremo crop in 1992. This acquisition ensured some of the highest quality coffee supplies in the world would be reaped by Starbucks. The company has close relationships with their coffee exporters. They maintain this by working directly with them and training them. A good relationship here is essential and needs to be maintained. The ‘firm’s value chain’ consists of: The Firm’s infrastructure; which is about the ways in which Starbucks want their organisation to run and how it is best to implement systems of planning, finance, quality control and information management, it is also where they have made the decision to make high quality coffee from the best coffee beans as this is involved with the quality control. Human Resource Management; It is concerned with the activities involved in recruiting, managing, training, developing and rewarding people within the organisation. For Starbucks this is where they have made decisions about the fact that all employees are equal, even those on the shop-floor that are working over 20 hours a week receive bonuses like free coffee and health care coverage, this was to make sure that the members of staff felt as if they were valued by the company and would continue to provide a good service. Another implemented scheme is for all Starbucks store staff to have a comprehensive 24 hour training scheme before they were allowed on to work directly with customers. Technology development; Starbucks has a large number of areas where it uses technology from regulating their stock levels to the cash registers. There is also technology to enable customers can to order their coffee over the internet and then pick it up from the store when they get there. Some stores now also contain computers where customers can access the internet. Procurement; this refers to the processes for acquiring the various resource inputs to the primary activities. For instance, the method of obtaining the grade A coffee beans from suppliers to use in the Starbucks coffee. Inbound logistics; For Starbucks this means receiving the coffee beans and other products that they need to make the products in their stores from their suppliers and storing these until they are used to make the product that they are going to sell. Operations; this is the stage where Starbucks make the coffee in the store and package the other subsidiary products. Outbound logistics; this is collection, storage and distribution of coffee. A customer actually purchasing a cup of Starbucks coffee from the store. Marketing and Sales; This is how consumers become aware of Starbucks coffee and purchase it. Starbucks is a worldwide company and their brand is recognised all over the world, which means that marketing is not as necessary as it once was. Most people now recognise the name and associate the brand-image with high quality products. Service; this includes all the activities that enhance or maintain the value of the product, e.g. installation, repair and training. This area is concerned with the members of staff that deal with the customers, it focuses on the need to ensure the ‘customer experience’ of visiting a Starbucks store is all the more enjoyable due to the friendliness and efficiency of staff and consistently high quality product on offer.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Pakistan :: essays research papers fc

Pakistan   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Pakistan is a country that, since its creation, has been rooted in turmoil. The recent years are no exception to this. Since 1988, power has been divided among the president, the prime minister and the military. Tensions between the three, however, have led to eight changes of government and three elections. No elected leader has ever completed a full term in office. Benazir Bhutto, who was dismissed by the president in August 1990 after only twenty-one months in office, is the only Pakistani leader to be given a second chance at ruling (Newberg 19). On October 6, 1993 a general election was held in Pakistan. The Pakistan People's Party (or PPP) received a majority of the vote and as a result Benazir Bhutto once again became prime minister. This time however, she has a pliant president in the form of an old friend. On November 13, 1993, Farooq Leghari was elected the country president. Yet even with this unique opportunity for agreement within the ruling circle reforms have not taken place (The Europa World Year Book 2460). Despite the PPP's success in the 1993 election they still faced uncertainty. They lack not only a parliamentary majority but unity within their own ranks. One of the biggest problems was a bitter family feud between Benazir Bhutto and her mother, Begum and brother, Murtaza. Murtaza had returned from exile to claim a seat in the Sind provincial assembly, but was immediately arrested for alleged terrorist activity. In late December 1993, Benazir removed her mother as PPP co-chair after she had endorsed Murtaza's claim that he was the rightful heir to his father's political legacy. However, in September 1994, the family feud seemed to end during a visit of the prime minister to her mother (Banks 717).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Pakistan the end of the cold war had not brought on new, pragmatic thinking on foreign policy that could make Pakistan less reliant on Western support and allow it to develop closer ties with its neighbors. After the cold war, many third world countries were abandoned by their protectorates- the U.S. or the former soviet Union. However Pakistan's elite has yet to fend for itself (Rashad 158). Pakistan's relations with India worsened. Since the creation of Pakistan, relations with India have dominated foreign affairs. These relations reflect a centuries old rivalry between Hindus and Muslims. The reason for the tensions today is allegations that each side was on the verge of conducting nuclear tests (Year Book 2462).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Much of Pakistan's problems stem from a legacy of rule by a small group of around 300 families. Through blood ties, marriage, and business, they have

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Comparing Fast Food Giants Burger King and McDonald’s

Burger King Versus McDonald’s Fast Food Franchises have raised many questions or debates that have risen because of obesity issues and health concerns in our society to this day. This has led me to compare Burger King and McDonald’s. Comparison of these two companies to see exactly what they have to offer and the fact that people seem to look at all fast food the same. It is all bad for you and causing health issues. Burger King and McDonald’s are the top two fast food chains and are known for serving unhealthy foods, but there are healthy choices available, as salads. As I have done my research to see if there are healthy options when we eat at these places. Truly comes down to whether it is us or the franchises making the wrong choices or whose fault it really is. Fast food franchises being all of the same or having differences amongst food options and services offered. Similarities Main thing appears to be a burger, fries, and a soft drink is what they are known for. Both of the franchises basically offer the same types of foods, combo meals, children meals, dollar menus, super sizes available, play lands and a drive thru for that fast service. Usually you can bet the food will taste the same each time you go, giving us the feeling of reliability. Whether you want to sit down as a family or eat on the go. Both of the companies keep the cost down to make it an affordable meal and giving us a variety to choose from. They both serve breakfast, lunch, and supper options. This is partially what makes it hard for us to say no. The convenience and time saving options really hit home to our busy schedules. Differences: Now even though they both seem to be basically the same, there are differences within these two franchises. One way that they are different is in the way they prepare and process their foods. At Burger King, they use a process where there is no human intervention while cooking their burgers. No one has to stand there and flip the burgers. This is saving time and providing employees to be available to keep moving and making meals more quickly. They also use a broiler, giving us that broiler taste. Where McDonald’s uses a basic grill style and someone has to be there constantly to turn and flip the burgers. Burger King has bigger and thicker burgers, providing more for your buck. They also have the option of onion rings instead of fries, and they are lower in calories than fries. When concerning their fries, they even have the option of no salt on them. This is an amazing option for those of us watching our sodium intake. The one thing that I was surprised with is that they provide Kraft macaroni and cheese and apple fries in the children’s meals, along with milk. The fries are still included, but for those parents who do not want them to have the fries, there is your other option. McDonald’s gives you a wider range of choices in desserts and salads. They offer 10 different types of salads, where Burger King only offers you 3 types of salads. Their happy meal is including a choice of low fat chocolate and white milk, fries along with apple slices. If you do not want your child to have fries, there’s the option of two packages of apple slices. They are attempting to offer a healthier choice for your children. Healthier choices If you want just the basic burger, fries, and a beverage, it really does not matter where you go; they both offer these and come down to the consumer’s taste buds. Basically either place you go, they both have begun to offer many healthy food options. It still is not the best choice, but you can choose something that will not cause so much weight gain. It is coming down to our choices on what we eat if we must go to a fast food restaurant. Some of the choices you can make: Have a salad with the dressing on the side, Burger King’s fries with not salt, have the condiments on the side or none, choose a burger with no bacon or cheese, have their oatmeal option with fruit on top, a veggie burger instead of meat, grilled instead of fried and have juice instead of soda. There are many things that we can choose to eat that will make our visit to these two places healthier. Both places provide brochures on the nutritional value on their meals, take time to check them out and see what you are eating. Burger King and McDonald’s are very similar in many ways, but do have differences. Just depending on what your taste buds are, if you want it made your way, or if you want a bigger burger. These will assist in determining to which company fits best to your desires. The salad option, McDonald’s is the way to go. They have best options in this category, but remember to go for the grilled instead of fried and have that dressing on the side. Just remember it is our choice to what we are putting in our body. References Associated Press. â€Å"McDonald's profit climbs 27 percent. † MSNBC. October 19, 2007. Retrieved November 26th 2011. Written by Associated Press on November 15, 2011 4:35 pm. http://newsone. com/author/associatedpress3/ Brandau, Mark (28 March 2011). â€Å"BK’s Chidsey to resign in April†. Nation's Restaurant news. Burger King Corporation. 2007, www. k. com, Retrieved November 26th 2011. Cordal, Ina Paiva; Walker, Elaine (28 October 2010). â€Å"Burger King Ousts top staff†. Miami Herald. 2010 10-K SEC Filing, Burger King Corporation, 30 June 2010, pp. 38-40. Hogan, David (1997). Selling 'em by the Sack: White Castle and the Creation of American Food. New York: New York University Press. Jakle, John A. ; Sculle, Keith A. ; Pappas (1999). Fast Food: Roa dside Restaurants in the Automobile Age (1st ed. ). JHU Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN  080186920X. â€Å"Mathew Burns of Long Beach, California, and Kieth g. Kramer, Burn's stepson and owner of a Daytona Beach, Florida drive in, founded Insta-Burger King, Burger King's predecessor. † Kroc, Ray and Anderson, Robert (1977). Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's. Chicago: Contemporary Books. Levinstein, Harvey (2003). Paradox of Plenty: a Social History of Eating in Modern America. Berkeley: University of California P, 2003. 228-229. Luxenberg, Stan (1985). Roadside Empires: How the Chains Franchised America. New York: Viking, 1985. Mcginley, Lou Ellen with Stephanie Spurr (2004). Honk for Service: A Man, A Tray and the Glory Days of the Drive-In Restaurant†. Tray Days Publishing. Schlosser, Eric (2005). â€Å"Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal† HarperCollins Publishers. www. chapters. indigo. ca/books/Fast-Food-Nation. Retrieved November 25th, 2011. Thottam, Jyoti (June 6, 2005). â€Å"Fast Food Face-Off. † Time Online Magazine. Read more at Suite101: Which Fast Food is Better: McDonalds o r Burger King? | Suite101. com http://tasha-kelley. suite101. com/which-fast-food-is-better–McDonald’s-or-burger-king

Friday, November 8, 2019

How to Teach the Future - ESL Education

How to Teach the Future - ESL Education Teaching the future in English is relatively simple in the beginning. Students understand the future with will and learn the form quickly. However, the problems begin when discussing the future with going to. The key issue is that the future with going to is logically a better fit when speaking about the future. The future with going to tells us about our plans, whereas the future with will is mainly used to discuss reactions that occur at the moment of speaking and speculation about the future. Of course, there are other uses, but this main issue leads to a lot of confusion among students. Choosing when to introduce the future with will and going to carefully can make all the difference in comprehension. It is recommended to delay introducing these forms until students are comfortable with some basic tenses. Start by Speaking about Plans and Hopes To help students become familiar with both forms, discuss your future plans as well as your thoughts about the future. This will ensure that you use both the future with will and going to. If you are teaching beginning level students, separating the two forms will help students understand the difference. If your students are intermediate level, mixing the forms can assist in teaching the fluidity between the forms in everyday usage. Beginners I have some predictions for next year. I think that you will all speak better English at the end of this course! Im sure I will have a vacation. However, I dont know where. Ill probably visit my parents in Seattle in the summer, and my wife will ... Intermediate Next year, Im going to take up the guitar. It will probably be very difficult for me, but I love music. My wife and are going to fly to New York in September to visit some friends. While were in New York, the weather will probably be good... In both cases, ask students to explain the function or purpose of the different forms. Help students understand that the future with will is used for making predictions, or what you think will happen. The future with going to, on the other hand, is used to state future intentions and plans. Future with 'Will' for Reactions Introduce the future with will for reactions by demonstrating various scenarios that call for reactions: John is hungry. Oh, Ill make him a sandwichLook its raining outside. OK, Ill take my umbrella.Peter doesnt understand the grammar. Ill help him with the exercise. Explaining Future Forms on the Board Use a future with will for promises and predictions timeline to illustrate the future used for speculating about the future. Contrast this timeline with future  with going to for intentions and a plans timeline to illustrate the difference between the two forms. Write positive sentences of both forms on the board and ask students to change the sentences into both questions and negative forms. Point out that will not becomes wont in most everyday use. Comprehension Activities Comprehension activities focusing on specific functions will help cement the understanding of differences between these two forms. For examples, a reading comprehension on the weather can help students use the future with will. This can be contrasted with a listening comprehension discussing future plans with going to. More extended dialogues and reading comprehensions can be used to mix the forms once students understand the differences between the forms. Quizzes asking to choose between future with will or going to also help to solidify understanding. Challenges with the Future As discussed above, the main challenge is in distinguishing between what is planned (going to) and what is a reaction or speculative (will). Add to that the fact that many native speakers mix the forms themselves, and you have a recipe for trouble. I find it helpful to boil teaching down to two questions: Was a decision made about this statement BEFORE the moment of speaking? - If yes, use going toAre you thinking about future possibilities? - If yes, use willIs this a reaction to what someone has said or done? - If yes, use will Not all uses of these two forms can be answered with these simple questions. However, raising students consciousness of these key points will help them become more accurate in their use of these two future forms.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on Red Convertible

The Cost of War Vietnam was a hell on earth for the solders that were forced to fight it. The solders that had a bad experience were traumatized beyond help. The story â€Å"The Red Convertible† was a story about a man named Henry that was sent to Vietnam and upon his return was never the same. Lyman, Henry’s younger brother, narrates the story and he was fortunate not to have to fight. Henry did not get enough support when he really needed it. When Henry came back from Vietnam he was traumatized. He never acted the same and his family never recognized him from before he left. His actions seem to be more hostile to everyone. Henry seemed always withdrawn and overly aggressive upon his return. Before he went into the service he had a good relationship with his brother and acted a little â€Å"loony†. The part of the story where they go on a road trip with their new convertible defines Henry’s personality. Henry and Lyman were driving around when they saw a girl named Susy walking along the road, on a whim they both decide to pick her up and give her a ride home. When they find out where she lives in Alaska they don’t care and they drive her home. They were both so carefree that they decided to go take her home. Henry and Lyman were so charismatic that Susy’s family took them in as their own. When Susy let down her hair and Henry held her up on his shoulders showed what a carefree and expressive p erson he was. Lyman seemed to have all the luck and that led to Henry’s resentment toward him. Lyman seemed to be a prodigy with making money. He was so good that he was able to own a restaurant at the age of 16. And he showed he good luck more by getting a good number on the draft where Henry got a bad one and so he signed up for the military. Henry’s hostility toward Lyman manifested by him not going through the same experience, and Henry not getting any help. Henry was unbalanced when he came back from the war. He didn... Free Essays on Red Convertible Free Essays on Red Convertible Unable to Cope in Erdrich’s â€Å"The Red Convertible† In the short story â€Å"The Red Convertible† Louise Erdrich writes about two brothers who were Chippewa Indians, living on a reservation in the 1970’s. Lyman, the youngest brother, reveals how an event in his older brothers life, Henry’s, turned him inside out, dwindled from the person he was. Lyman’s story is about how Henry changes, before the war Henry was out going, liked telling jokes and hanging out with his brother. After Henry comes home from being drafted into the Vietnam War; he doesn’t talk or laugh and is to himself, Lyman even destroys the car they shared, trying to bring his brother back. Henry worked at Jewel Bearing Plant before the layoff. He didn’t seam as lucky with money as his brother Lyman. â€Å"But Henry was never lucky in the same way as me.†(409) Lyman became owner of a restaurant at sixteen. â€Å"It wasn’t long before the whole thing was mine.†(407) Henry didn’t seam to have a problem with Lyman’s good fortune; he loved his brother, they did every thing together. Lyman and Henry bought a red convertible together and traveled all summer in it. Henry liked having fun and making people laugh. â€Å"Then my brother Henry did something funny†¦he started twirling, this way and that, so her hair was flung out from side to side. â€Å"I always wondered what it was like to have long pretty hair,† Henry says. (408) Henry liked to talk; he never met a stranger, â€Å"†¦talking to whoever sat with us†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (409) After three years of being a prisoner of war, Henry came home. â€Å"†¦Henry was different, and I’ll say this: the change was no good.† (409) Lyman knew that Henry would be different from the experiences he under went in the war, he didn’t know how deep the wounds ran in his brothers mind. The way Henry acted, never smiling or talking and always jumpy, unable to deal with everyday life; even his friends quite coming around. â€Å"†¦now y... Free Essays on Red Convertible The Cost of War Vietnam was a hell on earth for the solders that were forced to fight it. The solders that had a bad experience were traumatized beyond help. The story â€Å"The Red Convertible† was a story about a man named Henry that was sent to Vietnam and upon his return was never the same. Lyman, Henry’s younger brother, narrates the story and he was fortunate not to have to fight. Henry did not get enough support when he really needed it. When Henry came back from Vietnam he was traumatized. He never acted the same and his family never recognized him from before he left. His actions seem to be more hostile to everyone. Henry seemed always withdrawn and overly aggressive upon his return. Before he went into the service he had a good relationship with his brother and acted a little â€Å"loony†. The part of the story where they go on a road trip with their new convertible defines Henry’s personality. Henry and Lyman were driving around when they saw a girl named Susy walking along the road, on a whim they both decide to pick her up and give her a ride home. When they find out where she lives in Alaska they don’t care and they drive her home. They were both so carefree that they decided to go take her home. Henry and Lyman were so charismatic that Susy’s family took them in as their own. When Susy let down her hair and Henry held her up on his shoulders showed what a carefree and expressive p erson he was. Lyman seemed to have all the luck and that led to Henry’s resentment toward him. Lyman seemed to be a prodigy with making money. He was so good that he was able to own a restaurant at the age of 16. And he showed he good luck more by getting a good number on the draft where Henry got a bad one and so he signed up for the military. Henry’s hostility toward Lyman manifested by him not going through the same experience, and Henry not getting any help. Henry was unbalanced when he came back from the war. He didn...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Marketing transportation assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Marketing transportation assignment - Essay Example This process goes through a machine. The machine has three compartments. Bottles that come from the roll conveyor get into the machine for successive treatment. The bo0ttles are cleaned in the frost compartment with a small amount t of caustic soda at a temperature of 100 to 115 F. In the second compartment the bottles are again rewashed with a small amount of caustic soda at a temperature of to the third compartment, the bottles are rinsed again with sort ware for another ten minutes (Kachru, 693). In this place, syrup is prepared from filtered water, sugar and the concentrate. The room is filtered with several tanks where the first one is heating tank where syrup is actually prepared. Here the amount of sugar concentrate is heated up to 850 F where a saturated solution is made (Kachru, 693). The filled bottles are then crowned with plastic or metallic caps to protect the purity of the content .They are then branded with the necessary information by the help of laser machine for its supply in the market .the bottles are then lifted manually from the conveyor and packed. After all this process then the wholesalers take the beverages from the pepsin manufacturer and distribute it to the wholesaler (Kachru,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Strategic analysis of Acer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Strategic analysis of Acer - Essay Example Acer has since been the third largest computer manufacturing company in the world holding 9.5% of the market share, with its growth being experienced outside USA mature market, largely in emerging nations. The peripherals and PC industry is very competitive and Acer has maintained growth since 1999 with significant growth in revenues. The key competitors in the market include Dell, HP and Lenovo; however there is a fragmentation of the market with 46% of it owned by brands which have market share of less than 4% each. Acer seeks to increase its market share through release of premium PCs under Ferrari brand and expansion in LCD TVs with BenQ brand (Unruh & Ettenson, 2010). This paper seeks to give a detailed report of strategic analysis of Acer Inc. The paper will analyze the environment in which Acer functions and identify the opportunities and threats to which it might expect to have to respond. This will be done through environmental analysis (PESTLE, Porter’s Five Forces, and SWOT). The report will also make analyses of the resources and key capabilities of the company plus the factors that give the company its competitive advantage. This will be done through assessing the Industry Critical Success Factors, analyzing resources and capabilities and link the generic strategy. Finally the paper will assess the extent to which Acer’s existing strategies match its environment and suggest improvements where there is a justification. This will be done through looking at the company’s strategy within its environment and use of the J and S three tests (suitability, acceptability, feasibility and suggested improvements. There will be a final management summary, conclusion and recommendations to the company and sample diagrams of the models of market and environment analysis. Acer is the third largest manufacturer of electronics (PC) in the world using a transnational strategy for procuring its components in order to maintain cost leadership.

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Social Classes Of The 19th Century Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Social Classes Of The 19th Century - Essay Example Social classes with more force generally subsidiary classes with less force. Social classes with a huge deal of power are mostly examined as elites, no less than inside their own communities. Throughout the 19th century, the middle class, too called the classes' bourgeoisie, cultivate from the groups of 18th century profitable and industrial entrepreneurs. At the similar time, many fresh occupations were formed which principally used mind skills somewhat than substantial labor; the amount of persons and families in these careers burst in number, generating a considerable, and ultimately prevailing, middle class. Marxism describes the bourgeoisie as the social class which attains revenues from ownership or business in capital benefit, or from profitable actions such as the purchasing and selling of goods, wares and services. Throughout the 19th century, the inferior, or working, class urbanized from the groups of 18th century customary rural farmers and laborers. At the similar time, some innovative professions were shaped which chiefly used material labor somewhat than mental skills; the number of individuals and families in these fields burst in number, creating an extensive lower class. The lower class was collected principally of workers in extractive, developing, and service industries, which were needy on wages and who chiefly, used physical abilities. The lower class was separated into professional sub-groupings of extremely skilled handcrafters, semi-skilled workforce, and unskillful laborers. Differences Between The Bourgeoisies And The Working Class Of The 19th Century According to 1Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) the configuration of class-awareness is by no means mechanical, as the alertness of social stratification might be only faintly formed or might be overshadowed by other fundamentals in social understanding. This means that we can locate out so far social stratification supported on economic relationships; the dissimilarities connecting class, status and command circumstances, and the method professions have been used to classify strata - the thoughts of individuality and measures. Geographical Mobility According to 2Weber two major social classes beneath capitalism are Class Who They Are And Their Property The petit bourgeoisie Those who own small businesses and are minor employers The manual working class Those who own nothing and have to sell their labour in order to live. Bourgeoisie and proletariat or the Working Class were 3Karl Marx's (1818-1883) own stipulations for the two classes he experimented in the industrialized society, which was all around him. 4"Our epoch, the epoch of the Bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." Work Orientation Marx measured that the powerful disagreement among the bourgeoisie and the proletariat would explode into a growing by the proletariat alongside their opponents. This would, Marx measured, be the predictable outcome of the progress in society which he could see occurring. Temporary workers,

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Fundamentals Aspects That Shaped the Great Mind of Plato Essay Example for Free

The Fundamentals Aspects That Shaped the Great Mind of Plato Essay The importance of understanding concepts and analyzing the true meaning of words capture the human mind to develop philosophical thinking, so men can determine what they know about the world. A particularly exciting aspect of the human mind has always been intrigued in understanding reality, and Plato was fascinated with the abstract and theoretical principles of what constitutes reality. To Plato, ideas or conceptual forms were essential realities; when we refer to justice or beauty, it is essential to analyze the real meaning of the words to understand the form. Plato developed a whole philosophy in trying to examine how the human mind arrives to knowledge. Plato was a remarkable thinker and writer, and his system of thought and metaphysics have strongly impacted many societies. A great mind like Plato’s is the result of a sequence of experiences and historical events, the impact of certain figures in society and the combination of a great intellect. The aspects that shaped Plato’s ideas were: first the society of Sparta and the deceitfulness of the Athenian democracy, and second the influence of philosophers like Socrates, Phytagoras, Parmenides and others; the synthesis of these aspects is revealed thought out his beliefs and works. . One of the most crucial aspects in Plato’s philosophy is his Utopia. There are central elements that shaped Plato’s perception of what a perfect state should constitute of; therefore, it is vital to analyze the historical context of Plato’s life. Plato was born in 428-7 B.C., in the early years of the Peloponnesian War. After Athens’s defeat in the war, antidemocratic sympathizers brought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, and Plato was related to various people who were concerned about the new rule. At a young age, it is possible that Plato could have blame Athens’ defeat to democracy1 (Russell,105). Plato came from one of the â€Å"wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens† (Annas, 18). He was a student of Socrates, for whom he felt a tremendous affection; Socrates was found guilty in corrupting the youth and believing in other gods and was put to death by the Athenian democracy. Plato showed in many of his early Dialogues th e figure of Socrates as the philosopher who gave enlightenment to the citizens of Athens because his knowledge relied on logic and reason; for example, in the dialectic development of the idea of piety in the Euthyphro, Socrates emphasized the exercise of reason in analyzing the fallacies of his opponent’s arguments. The irony of this dialogue is that Socrates is charged of impiety, and he proved to know more about piety than his opponent. It is not surprising that Plato will favor Sparta in his Utopia because the Athenian democracy is responsible for Socrates’ death. In Plato’s works, Socrates is in the highest level of intellect and ethics, and in the dialogue Crito Socrates is the perfect example of what an ethical position should be: â€Å"The view that the citizen who has agreed to live in a state must always obey the laws of the state, or else persuade the state to change its laws, or leave the state† (Crito 51bc-52a-d); then Socrates affirmed: one must not even do wrong when one is wronged, which most people regard as the natural course. Socrates represents the great martyr and philosopher who is willing to act in name of justice besides of the circumstances. He would prefer to die rather than to act unjustly. Plato established most of his highest ethical values throug h Socrates’ voice in the Dialogues. It is possible to assume that Plato could have felt a great loss after Socrates’ death, and his resentment towards Athens influenced him to see Sparta as a better society. Plato will also favor Sparta’s educational and social reforms in his works. In Plato’s Utopia, the Republic, the first dialogues near to the end of Book V, consists of the elements necessary to construct an ideal state. Plato introduces us to three classes: the common people, the soldiers, and the guardians. Since the guardians have political power, Plato is concerned in how the guardians will develop their roles in the most appropriate way, so education is essential in the role of the guardians. There are many similarities in what Plato suggests about the guardians’ education to the one provided in Sparta. For example; Plato explains that education is divided in two areas: music and gymnastics. In Platos’s Utopia, it is important to encourage a type of education that stimulates the mental and physical training of the guardians to encourage them to die in battle if it is necessary. This is similar to Sparta’s main interest of education to convert yo ung men into warrior machines. Courage and good behavior are the characteristics to be promoted in the Republic. It seems to be that there is a â€Å"rigid censorship† over the literature that young men have access in the Republic; for example, mother and nurses are to tell their children only â€Å"authorized stories.† Homer and Hesiod are not part of the education because they provide examples of gods behaving badly, and it cannot be taught that evil things come from gods2 (Rusell 109). It is possible to assume that there are elements in Homer and Hesiod that will make the readers develop a fear of dead, and in his Utopia it is unacceptable to stimulate the fear of death in young soldiers because the main purpose is to encourage men to die in battle. In the Republic, education seems to aim only at the functional level of the military, and it tries to discourage men to question about the gods’ evil and erroneous actions because these factors will distract them form protecting the state. In Sp arta, the Lycurgan reforms’ main objective of education was to build strong soldiers, and the stimulation of cultural and scientific education was not on the picture. For example, at the age of seven, children were sent to schools where they were subject to a very strict training; they were taught to steal and if they were caught they were punished but not because of the action but because of their stupidity. Plato also proposes a system of communism for the guardians and possible to the soldiers, these men are supposed to have a simple way of living like simple houses, food, and none private property beyond of what is required. Gold and silver are forbidden. If we look at the Spartan society much of this is the same. For example, none Spartan citizen should be â€Å"destitute, and none should be rich,† and Spartans were expected to live on the procedure of theirs lot, and they could not own gold or silver. Sparta impacted many Greeks through the creation of the â€Å"myth† of a perfect state, and this is reflected in Plato’s political theory. The admiration of Sparta seemed bizarre especially during Lycurgus’s reforms. Lycurgus is thought to be a â€Å"mystical person,† whose origin was Arcadian and his name meant â€Å"wolf-repeller.† During this time, the Spartan constitution attributed to Lycargus seemed to have shaped the society in order to pursuit war and encourage its citizens to sacrifice everything in the battles. It is hard to understand that Sparta could have played an important part in what Greece have contributed to the civilization, but certainly many greeks were inspired and attracted to the simplicity of this state as Bury explains: A stranger from Athens or Miletus in the fifth century visiting the straggling villages which formed her unwalled unpretentious city must have had a feeling of being transported into an age of long past, when men were braver, better, and simpler, unspoiled by wealth, undisturbed by ideas. To a philosopher, like Plato, speculating in political science, the Spartan state seemed the nearest approach to the ideal†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Bury, 141). In understanding Plato’s Utopia we can see that there is so much resemble to Sparta because Sparta represented the opposite of Athens, and it appealed to Plato in many ways like the social organization and the education. Plato was very attracted by the stability of that state; for example, the Spartan constitution remained unchanged for centuries. In the first books I-V of the Republic, justice become very important for Plato; for example, the guardians exert a great amount of power because they represented the wisest group in the community, so decisions are taken by the wiser because they will know was good and best for the people and â€Å"injustice would only occur,† according to Plato’s theory, â€Å"if there were men in other classes who were wiser than some of the guardians† (Russell, 114). And this is the reason why Plato proposes the stratification and deprivation of citizens, but the question is very complicated in defining the science of power, g overnment, and politics. It seems very just to give the power to the wisest man to make decisions, but how do we determine who is the wisest and most important if that person would use his wisdom in the interest of the state. In understanding how to rule a community the ethical ideal is very important. As Plato explains, justice consists of men doing their jobs, as the doctor will pursuit to cure the sick, but the problem is how men decide what their jobs should be or what is their function in an active society in terms of utility. Men have to decide what they want to work on and fulfill the skill that is required on that job, but the problem is whether men should decide their jobs based on their tastes or based on the state’s judgment of the aptitudes of every individual, and the question is who has the strongest ethical ideal to decide that: the individual or the government? For Plato, the purpose of the government is essential in determining what a man job should be, but this involves many difficulties in making the adequate choice because there is none assurance that the government will make the right decision. The problem is that even though the rulers are philosophers, there is not room for innovation, as Russell says â€Å"a philosopher is to be, for all the time, a man who understands and agrees with Plato.† The dilemma is that philosophers are not encouraged to think beyond Plato’s ideals. This example of the government been in charge of determining men’s aptitudes and their jobs takes us back to the organization in Sparta. The Utopia perceived by Plato was strongly influenced by Sparta, but a Sparta that is more mythical than real and that exists only in Plato’s ideals. Certainly the situation in Athens, the democracy that he disapproved so much, and the unethical action in convicting Socrates forced Plato into many struggles with his subconscious mind. This influenced Plato to see in Sparta the possibility to create a Utopia in his mind but certainly one with many defective aspects. Plato’s profoundest and original ideas resulted from the attempt to solve problems by his predecessors. Aristotle speaks of Plato’s ideas as â€Å"resembling the Pythagorean, but with certain features of its own† in the first book of Metaphysics. The philosophical influences of that time shaped many of Plato’s ideas. The Heracletian view, that proposes that the world is in constant flux and cannot be the object of knowledge, appealed so much to Plato that he decided to approach Socrates on this matter. Socrates at that time was concern with ethics and was seeking the universals and their definitions. The idea of Heracletian and the image of Socrates as the philosopher is shown in many of Plato’s dialogues. The Dialogues dealt with the search of definitions and abstract ideas. Plato’s main inspiration was Socrates; for example, in the majority of the Dialogues, Socrates always take the leading position, even in the Theaetetus and Philebus which were written in Plato’s maturity4( Socrates influenced Plato with the concern of ethical problems in the society, and this explained why â€Å" The Good† dominated on Plato’s thought; â€Å"no evil can happen to a goo d man, either in life or after death†( Dialogues, Apology). Plato derived many ideas from Pythagoras especially the â€Å"Orphic elements† of his philosophy such as; the religious ideas like the belief of immortality, his passion for mathematics, and eternal truth. Plato found very appealing Socrates’ idea of universal definitions; but since universals could have no application in a world subject to the â€Å"Heraclitean flux,† he needed to test whether Socrates was right or not. If Socrates was right, there would have to be realities outside the world of the â€Å"ordinary sensible experience.† This leads Plato to consider the following question: was there any evidence for the existence of ‘such changeless truths’? If they exist, how could we have any knowledge of their nature? For Plato, it was possible the existence of a world of eternal forms, but he needed mathematical truth to prove this. Through Pythagoras’s discovery of application of music as regarded by Pythagoreans as the prime cause of order and harmonia in the universe; Plato found an example of the existence of truth outside the empirical world. Another example is that in the case of the statement that the triangle consists of three straight lines is true, but is not true for a triangle draw by hand because by definition â€Å" a line has length but no breadth and is therefore invisible† ( It follows that the triangle of experiences only approximate to the form of truth, and Plato embraced this idea. Plato perceived that ideas like justice or love or beauty have an invisible form; for example, in the perception of beauty one could see a beautiful sculpture but this only approximates to the eternal form of beauty. Clearly â€Å"the modern explanation of mathematical truth as analytical or tautologous was not possible† ( in the minds of Plato and Phytagoras because then the universals of a form could not have exist in the idea of immortality. Another greatest influence on Plato was Parmenides, and from him Plato derived the idea that reality is eternal and timeless and that on â€Å"logical grounds, all changes must be illusory† (Russell, 105). All the ideas of these Greek philosophers combined all together lead to Plato’s belief that â€Å"knowledge could not be derived from the senses, but only achieved by the intellect† (Cantor, 12). In Plato’s theory of knowledge, he concluded that reality is pure idea and that we know it by defining our concepts trough reason and critical thinking. The middle of the Republic Book V to Book VII concentrated on the philosophy and the ideals of forms: Until philosophers are kings, or the kings or the princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy,and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner nature who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from these evils-no, nor the human race, as I believe- and then only will this our State have a possibility of life and behold the light of day. (Plato, Republic, Book V). Trough this passage we can see the combination of Parmenides and Pythagoras thoughts produced a doctrine which was felt to satisfy the intellect and the religious emotions3 ( Russell, 120). In understanding what Plato meant by knowledge and opinion, we have to look at Par emenides. Paremenides stated that an individual who has knowledge has knowledge of something that exists, and for what does not exist is nothing. It is possible to assume that knowledge cannot be mistaken because it exists as a pure form, and opinion can be mistaken because opinion cannot be of what is not because if it was then it would be knowledge. Plato also suggested that things have opposite characters; for example, what is just can be in some respects unjust. It is self contradictory to assume that a thing can be just and unjust at the same time, and so particular things have to be accepted as not real; as Heraclitus mentioned: â€Å"we step and do not step into the same rivers; we are and are not.† Particular things are not the forms because they are concerned with opinion, and knowledge is the only concerned with the actual form. According to Plato, opinion is part of the world of senses and knowledge is part of the eternal world; therefore, perfect. Another important aspect of the theory is the fact that is â€Å"partly logic and partly metaphysical†; for example, if we look at a table, we would ask ourselves what is a table? A table is just the structure of a certain material like wood, plastic, or metal in a particular form but without a form, it would only be a shapeless material. For the table to come into existence there has to be the idea of a table which gives its shape. We can say that the physical world has no form unless it is shaped by an idea. In Plato’s metaphysics the presence of Heraclitus shaped his thoughts. Plato agreed with Heraclitus in the point that when the world is experienced trough the senses the reality is constantly changing; however, he took this to a step further and believed that there has to exist a reality that can be known through reason and this reality is not in change. In the last book of the Republic Plato dealt with the allegory of the cave and the influenced on Pythagoras is there. In the allegory, men live in a cave and in a world of shadows in which they are inevitable force to regard them as real, until a man is able to escape. He becomes aware of the reality, and this man that has discovered the real world outside the cave will represent the kind of philosopher who will fit best to become the guardian, and his duty is to inform and convince the others in the cave about the real things he saw outside, so they can save their souls. Plato and Pythagoras held that knowledge is necessary for the salvation of the soul, and this idea explains why is important that the man who has discovered the world outside the cave help the others to save their souls from their ignorance. The men in the cave would mock him at the beginning because they still live in a world of ignorance. Plato also reinforces the importance of becoming a philosopher and how knowledge will lead to the ‘intellectual world in the perception of the absolute good (White 91).† The mysticism of Plato’s theory leads to some conflicts in which reality is perfectly good and in other to perceive reality is to perceive good, but what exactly he meant by good? The idea of science and truth in good still seems to be more influenced by the mysticism of some philosophers rather than objectivism. In Plato’s theory of forms the presence of many philosophers is almost in every aspect of what he believes to be knowledge; his theory is the combination of different mechanisms extracted from different philosophers that allowed Plato to arrive at what is called the theory of forms. It is impossible to deny that Plato’s theory of forms represented the beginning of a philosophical system that had and continue to impact the world. Platonism is a very important philosophical system that has intrigued many thinkers, and in order to understand this philosophy is important to understand the philosophers who influenced Plato. Plato’s ideas and beliefs gave the foundation of what we called philosophy, and Plato’s love for wisdom and the necessity to know where the human mind gets its ideas was his most profound inspiration; however, it is difficult to ignore the various elements that define his ideas. The historical circumstances in which Plato lived influenced some of his thoughts especially his perception of a Utopia. In the Republic, there are many ideas that show significant similarities to the organization of the Spartan society. Plato was influenced by many philosophers, and the one that he regarded as a true inspiration was Socrates, and this leads us to follow his indignation to democracy in Athens. There were other figures that impacted Plato’s life and thoughts like Pythagoras, Parmenides, and Heraclitus, and they allowed Plato to come down with many of his ideas. Plato has been regarded as the eminent philosopher and has been admired by many societies, but in order to praise him is necessary to understand what could have influenced him. Plato will always remain a very interested and enigmatic figure that will continue to intrigue society because there has not been any other philosophical thought that has influenced so much our society.