Saturday, August 31, 2019

Disadvantages of Globalization Essay

1. ABSTRACT It is debated that sustainable development has not worked well within the globalist environment and continues to seem unpromising for our future. If there is not some sort of new outside of the box idea followed by drastic action which takes place, this society faces grave environmental dangers as every new year comes. This essay will critically assess the statement mentioned above and will go in depth to try to explain how negative impacts can be stopped and this essay will put forth ideas regarding how capitalism and environmentalism can reconcile. 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. BackgroundGlobalization is a concern today as it is attributed to massive social problems in developing nations. The deterioration of the environment i.e. the destruction of the rain forests, oceans, rivers, and lakes is directly related to overwriting and non-regulation of local environmental laws by corporations in developing countries. Also within the global society, economic inequality, especially poverty and exploitation of underdeveloped nations, are major social problems due to developed policies between international economic institutions of the International Monetary Fund and the Word Bank, international corporations, and national governments. These policies can be so harmful to economies that they contribute to horrors such as world hunger, disease, and human trafficking to name a few. Government intervention by regulation, taxation, and redistributing wealth then distorts natural laws of supply and demand. Some economies may suffer disadvantaged at first, but society is better off when the free market is allowed to control itself. 2.2. Purpose of the ReportThis report is aimed to give in detaied undertandign of what does globalization it, how it developed and what negative impacts on human life. While there are many positive aspects of globalization, its negative effects are ‘overwhelming’ and ‘far reaching’. In fact the effects of the same behave like slow poison which is why it becomes more important to recognize and stop the negatives. 2.3. Statement of the problemBefore understanding the reasons behind why this phenomenon has brought with it so many problems, we need to have a look at  the instruments by which globalization is being promoted and enhanced. The most important and predominant instruments influencing this process are the multinational corporations and the new revolution of information technology. 3. METHODOLOGY While preparing this report, mostly the book resources of Yeditepe University Knowledge Center applied. there were numbers of books to search about the subject. This report will start with briefly defining globalization. then it will follow by its negative impacts in terms of both its economic, human and nature impacts. 4. FINDINGS 4.1. GlobalizationThere are various definitions for the word globalization, but depending on the perspective it is seen in, this phenomenon ramifies itself in different shade colors between white and black. To put ourselves in the appropriate context, it is important to understand what the word globalization means. â€Å"Globalization in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional things or phenomena into global ones. It can also be used to describe a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces.† Globalization is also used to refer to another term called economic globalization and this term, refers to the â€Å"Integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.†(Robertson, 1992) During the death of each minute consumed and the passing of each day, societies have identified a certain shrinking of the world that has been more real with the strengthening of larger and stronger bonds between parallel worlds called countries. It is interesting to see that this phenomenon is not only visible because of the human being evolution, but also because of the rapid transformations in communication, transportation, and computer technology, that have permitted these parallel worlds to explore and be exposed to other ways of living and cultures (Roberts, 1999). In a broader perspective, this situation could be seen as a beneficial situation due to the fact, that opening up to new cultures, means the breaking of paradigms in the solving of problems. The difficulty nagging in everyone’s minds is, in the dissolution of those paradigms, are the  societies going to lose their identities which indicate in the way they live life and differ themselves from others? It’s a question that has been more and more obvious in the passing of each day and that have started revolutions in pursue of preventing cultural distortion because many countries, in fact, feel threatened by other cultures and consequently, are acting out to preserve themselves the best way possible. 4.2. Globalization and culture Globalization represents a challenge to cultures and local languages. Globalization needs to be pursued with tolerance and respect for the cultures that we come across. Being hastily judgmental could lead to marginalizing many local cultures. Scientific and economic superiority of the US and the flow of information technology assist in imposing certain languages in particular English as a second language in some developing and developed countries, and as a first language in some others and this could have a significant impact on cultures resulting in the dilution if not wiping out traditions, customs, and values of many societies and marginalizes their cultures (Appadurai, 1996). 4.2.1. Cultural imperialism People are scared of cultural imperialism, which describes the idea that one day the whole world will be one big culture and that the blending of cultures will eliminate the existence of the weaker ones and fusion the habits and customs of the stronger ones. In order for this to happen, there must be an eradication of many different cultures around the world, but in a personal perspective, the idea of cultural imperialism is not possible (Appadurai, 1996). Even if all the weakest cultures adopted important habits, people would still prefer some of the things their culture proportions. 4.2.2. McDonald’s More than half of the Colombians would never prefer a Mc Donald lunch over a real good â€Å"sancocho trifà ¡sico† and the American culture has a higher possibility to choose the other way around, due to the fact that a lot of people can only afford to eat at Mc Donald’s because of its low prices in their country. This is why in a way it is clear that even if cultural imperialism were to happen, the cultures of the world would never be able to come together to form just one. Besides, there is no secret that  globalization is an uneven process, due to the fact that there is an unequal distribution of benefits and losses and this is another argument that demonstrates that many cultures differ(Peterson, 1999). This imbalance, also leads to the separation between the rich countries, and the poor ones causing them to be more against the beliefs of the rich countries, and more protective of their own. Positive cultural understanding of the market is a way to facilitate any marketing program development and resumes in a higher success for the manager that applies this, but some managers confuse themselves believing that marketing influences culture completely (Appadurai, 1996). In a way, this is true but this does not mean it changes it even though product acceptance is affected by culturally based attitudes towards change. There are a few things to take into consideration when thinking that culture is in constant change with marketing. There is a term called corporate culture, which â€Å"describes the whole collection of assumptions, practices and norms that people in an organization adopt over time. This means that employees have to buy into them, eventually getting to the point where they take them for granted and passes them on.† (Bauman, 1998) This term is interesting because all of the companies have their own internal culture that is always bargaining with the culture of its home country and many managers confuse themselves trying to change their national cultures for that of their company without any success, thinking in that idea that market can change culture. Experts in organization behavior say it is difficult to alter any kind of culture independent if it is a national culture or a corporate one, but the corporate culture is more flexible in terms of the way they do things internally and that a manager must understand this in order to obtain success. 4.3. Globalization and developing countries Globalization has serious effects on many developing countries:a. The irresponsible behavior of some multinational corporations toward the environment of developing countries (using these countries as a safe haven) participating in this phenomenon could cause much harm to the latter. Due to lenient policing, expired products are dangerously marketed and natural surroundings are carelessly  abused. So globalization in this context changes the world to become a â€Å"global pillage instead of being a global village†. Besides due to lack of supervisory governmental bodies, such behaviour could also lead to Global Warming -the consequences of which will not be limited only to the marginalized nations (Cosgrove-Sacks, 1999). b. The real test to globalization is through its success in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor at local, national and global levels. However the widening gap between the East and the West at international level, and between haves and have-nots at national level is another serious aspect of globalization (Peterson, 1999). c. Globalization has forced many countries in various parts of this world to regulate to a lower league the most fundamental needs of their peoples. The equitable distribution of food, adequate health care facilities, and the quality of education are no longer priority concerns the political agendas of the governments in these countries (Roberts, 1999). All these indicate that poor societies in the third world not only remain far away from benefiting from globalization, but also they continue to suffer from its calamities, pitfalls and misfortunes. It then contributes to laying the foundation of injustices and social inequalities, and moreover preventing the growth of new markets in these countries because they are unable to compete with the advanced markets. Globalization can also be bad for countries that aren’t very good at producing things and are too impoverished. Their industries may need protection against multinational firms so that their local industries can develop and get big enough to fund research and development and exploit economies of scale. Globalization means the world becoming one big marketplace with as few trade barriers as possible, so obviously weaker companies would be wiped out by stronger ones, which might be based in a few rich countries. So great income inequality can result. However, it is generally agreed that globalization has more pros than it has cons. 4.4. Globalization and morals The immoral character of globalization is becoming even more serious and its negative impacts in this context have different aspects. Globalization has internationalized crimes. Drug trafficking and the trafficking of women and children have become much more difficult to control because of their international character. Not only crimes are globalized, but also diseases such as AIDS. Pornography too accounts for the poisoning of young minds and counter productive usage of technology. This has lead to increase in crimes against women and beginning of unhealthy trends in society(Perlas, 1999). 4.5. Globalization and international politics By increasing interdependence among countries, globalization would give economically strong and advanced countries a strong hold on international politics. However this power could be misused by superpowers which could possibly challenge international legitimacy through marginalizing the role of the United Nations and ignoring the international law (Baylis, 2001). 4.6. Globalization and societal structuresThe free economy and the development of technology have negative impact on labourers. As known, twenty percent of the world population is producing the needs of all population in this world, while most of the rest 80% are unable to find a suitable source of income. This is serious because underprivileged people are expected to revolt against their bad conditions (Perlas, 1999). This is possible with the growing decline of state’s power to the favor of private sectors, on one hand, and to the growing decrease of the governmental expenditures on social and public services such as heath, education etc., on the other. In this, globalization is a source of social instability and class disparity. 4.6.1. Inequalities within society It is difficult to fully understand inequalities within society without fully understanding that in our capitalist societies, nothing happens unless it is profitable and that profit is usually achieved through the struggle of others surrounding it.  The leading corporate empires and some of the richest people in our world’s history have achieved their successes through the blood, sweat and tears of the unnamable workers that have helped in the past, and are helping them today (Bauman, 1998). The following essay will critically assess the usefulness of the ‘blame globalism’ approach as to why there exist so many inequalities in our society, and this essay will also touch upon alternative points of view that steer away from capitalism as the main problem (Peterson, 1999). Inequality in society is quite extensive and it continues to grow. Different ways exist when portraying inequality and where it is rooted from, some views are fact based logic and some are more opinion based. Most of the time our initial views of what inequality is and where it seems to exist most, comes from the infomercials we see where images of poor children in third world countries strike across our televisions. Outside the western hemisphere of the world in the poorer countries there certainly is a visible inequality when compared to life here at home, but this has been the case for so many years (Perlas, 1999). One of the major modern inequalities creating a history of its own for people in the future to look back upon is how our own capitalist society continues to divide the rich and the poor at a fast rate and a greater division as every year passes. 4.7. Globalization materializing human nature Globalization has also popularized a consumer culture among people due to the flow of goods and products. Since the desire to consume more and more can never really be satisfied, the consumer becomes addicted to shopping to a point where the spiritual, moral and intellectual dimensions of his/her personality do not grow or develop. These are actually due to the business corporations, which produce the wide array of consumer goods and the media which advertise them. In fact this trend has also resulted in higher levels of dissatisfaction despite improved lifestyles due to never-ending wants (Bauman, 1998). 4.7.1. Gender issue Gender is essential to modern globalization in manufacturing because it has been discuss at a variety of joint degrees to see if assembly-line workers are to influence global factory regimes and  improve the quality of their jobs. This knowledge is made a power by workers in that they are able to build effective networks of resistance and resistance centers on issues of human rights, labor rights, gender identities, and indigenous identities (Brysk, 2004). Economic oppression caused by the globalization of markets and industries keeps women poor. Around the world, women are paid less than men even when they have similar jobs to male counterparts. Often women are demoted to lower paid positions and then unable to advance. When companies such as factories are privatized, women are the fist to be let go because employers assume that their income is an appendage the income earned by the male head of household. Single, unemployed mothers are one of the largest groups of potential trafficking victims (Brysk, 2004). All of these issues force women into the â€Å"gray,† semi-legal economy, or even worse, the black market in an effort to support themselves and their families. Increased globalization is what causes this oppression for women through trade, travel and the movements of money both legal and illegal become faster and much less able to be regulated and trafficking is made easier due to these factors. 4.7.2. Human rights violation The effect of globalization on state-based human rights violations depends on the type of state and its history. Countries that are newly democratizing with weak institutions and elite-controlled economies, such as Russia, Latin America, and Southeast Asia, the growth of global markets and economic flows tends to weaken coercive forces but increase crime, police abuse, and corruption (Brysk, 2004). Global mobility and information flows generally lead to ethnic mobilization, which may promote self-rule in more open states but mostly it produces abuses in defense of dominant-group control. Alternatively, the same forces have produced slow institutional openings by single-party states, like China and Mexico (Brysk, 2004). In much of Africa, globalization has increased the power void, by both empowering and providing intervention, which displace old governments without combining new ones. Some of the most horrifying abuses of human rights happened in the international civil wars of Sierra Leone, Angola, and the Congo (Brysk, 2004). 4.8. Globalization and prosperity Globalization poses serious questions about  peace and prosperity: Could the implementation of free market principle globally enhance international peace and security or prevents wars, as globalists argue? Prosperity, welfare and economic progress which market economy is expected to achieve could enhance or create some opportunities for political stability; but it does not necessarily ensure peace or social stability (Brueggemann, 2006). It is true that market economy has contributed to social and political stability in liberal states and to peace among them, but it does the opposite in many developing countries. Asian economic crisis of 1997 is a case in point. The free market forces allowed manipulators to control stock markets and to transfer large amount of money just to maximize their profits, while they were destroying the economies of many Asian countries (Baylis and Smith, 2001). Indeed these activities have destroyed the social structures of those societies, and furthermore, created what might be called potential social unrests in the region. That is why globalization in its current formula does not necessarily ensure social and political stability. 4.9. Globalization and Environment Capitalism is mainly about the overall accumulation of wealth based upon the consumption of our planet’s natural resources and these resources are becoming more and more strictly limited. We as one face the universal environmental problem existing that we are consuming roughly twenty-five percent more than the Earth can give us each year. Our planet needs these natural resources such as trees for example that continue to give our planet’s ecosystem clean air and water that we all need to survive daily. 4.9.1. Pollution We are exceeding the amount of pollution that our environment can handle. Waste products that give off carbon dioxide emissions into the air are now much more than our planet is able to absorb and deal with without having serious affects for both our planet’s health and our own. These carbon dioxide emissions are also the leading cause of our climate change referred to as global warming. Even though international agreements exist to prevent global warming by affectively fighting it, there truly needs to be than just marketing principles to achieve overall compliance from everyone (Cosgrove-Sacks, 1999). There has to be set in stone  principles that turn standard to every leading employer that threats the environmental crisis, and they need to feel as if they cannot just continue doing what they are doing by paying a fine here and there. There are many developing nations still needing to grow economically themselves but in order for them to achieve their goals, the richer countries such as ours here in the western hemisphere, we will need to reduce the usages of natural resources in order to balance things out efficiently (Cosgrove-Sacks, 1999). This is highly unlikely to happen as we continue to use more and more resources each and every year that passes now. If everyone in the world lived like we do over here, we would need around five planets to simply provide the necessary natural resources needed to survive. 4.9.2. Environmental technologies Technology that is more efficient and cleaner will not necessarily solve the environmental issues at hand either. Even though these new innovations seem to be the ideology that if we do things cleaner than everything will be okay, this is not the answer to the question of sustainability. Many areas of the world that were or still are leading polluters have began to go about their work more efficiently by adapting cleaner technology but it still does not change the fact countries such as the United States consume far more material goods and end up using more of the planet’s limited natural resources (Roberts, 1999). There is always another issue behind another and it becomes very difficult to address everything at once successfully. However, without a solution to these problems our planet’s climate will continue to die (Peterson, 1999). The only way for globalism to move forward successfully would be for it to make a change from exploiting out natural resources such as air and water and to protect them as common wealth trusts of humanities. They could belong to everybody and we would have the power to limit the use of scarce resources, charge rent, and pay dividends to everyone. Continuous economical growth can occur as long it becomes environmentally friendly with efficient technologies being adopted and if the economies steer away from producing material goods and begin to move towards services, sustainable prosperity is  what this is known as. Sustainable prosperity as the global use of resources and methods of dealing with wastes would not exceed the planet’s capacity to regenerate and absorb. True prosperity can only come if the income disparity between the rich and poor shortens (Brueggemann, 2006). 4.10. Globalization and poverty Wealth is created through labor. This labor comes from the people who are not getting rich from the company of which they are working for. Workers dedicate hours of labor work and most of their lives working with a company’s means of production such as machinery and building things. The company owners themselves are not out there building a house, driving a bus, or selling vacuums, yet they are getting practically all of the profit and do not do the hard work themselves. They simple own the means of production. This unfair sort of money pyramid is the bases of pretty much all major money leading companies and it is the system that creates rich and poor and continues to do so much more all the time (Bauman, 1998). 4.10.1. InequalitiesOnce this basic realization is understood, it is easier to see how inequalities within the oppressed classes relate to this as well. For poor people in places like Africa and similar circumstances countries, their struggle is mainly a result of the capitalists not caring about them, because there is no profit to be made out of their labour. What worsens the views and opinions people have on capitalists even more is not that they are exploiting the poor, but it is that they are not exploited them at all. These poor people are irrelevant to capitalist production and therefore capitalists truly do not care if they live or die, eat or starve, the capitalists simple are not concerned. In fact in some cases, capitalists would most likely love if the poor would just die out, so then they could stop pretending to care (Perlas, 1999). Bosses have used all sorts of divisions in the past to attempt to increase the inequalities and drive down working conditions. However, through the years there has been an increasing amount of workers coming together to fight these inequalities. There once existed a time when racism, sexism, and youth wages played more than just a small factor in working wages, but in  fact made up most of the inequalities within our society. With so much success as time progresses, workers continue to unite to challenge globalists (Peterson, 1999). With progressions of equality such as these in our capitalist society, there are certainly other views that do not blame globalism for all the poor in the world, in fact some may even say hat globalism helps people instead of causing societal negativities. 4.10.2. Decrease in living standards of people These types of little scenarios make up the theory of equal opportunity. Poorer families not having the education, health care, or typical social skills which are created by being raised in a decent home, are at a lesser advantage than others whom were raised in a middle class family (Robertson, 1992). This makes it clear to see how people and families remain poor over decades and through generation and as the prices of things climb, these people get even more left behind. It is not necessarily the fault of capitalism, just the result of many, many growing up situations being the same. However, when people then begin to bite onto this theory and give globalism the benefit of the doubt in situations, people then turn around and say it was globalism in the first place long back many years ago that caused that family to be poor. Then as decades passed, these poor families never got out of the downward slope of things and globalism started it all (Brysk, 2004). It is not a simple task to pin point exactly where inequality was derived from in the beginning, it is easier to see where it still exists now. For every positive thing brought to light regarding globalizm, there seems to be an opposing view whether fact of opinion that then blames it again. Globalizm and inequalities in society continue to move around as one, even if possibly they were never one in the beginning and globalism’s original intention was never to create a gap as large as the one is today between the rich and poor (Brysk, 2004). 5. CONCLUSION The affects of globalization can be endless. States in the US can see impacts both good and harmful due to manufacturing of export goods. Economically, globalization can be positive when it benefits commerce and can contribute to an increase in the standard of living. Also, when developing nations being to grow wealthier is can lead to social prosperity. On the other hand globalization can be seen as a negative. When it acts as  corporate imperialism, the global issues of environment, gender, and human rights are abused. This is due to the growth of markets, internationally, where economic movements tend to aid the deterioration of protective forces which increase crime levels, and abuse of policies. Depending on how globalization is approached it can negatively or positively affect socializations, but one thing s for sure: it brings change. 6. REFERENCES Appadurai, Arjun, Modernity at large : cultural dimensions of globalization, Minneapolis, Minn. : University of Minnesota Press, 1996Bauman, Zygmunt, Globalization : the human consequences, New York : Columbia University Press, 1998Baylis, John and Smith, Steve, The globalization of world politics : an introduction to international relations, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001Brueggemann, William G. The Practice of Macro Social Work. Thompson Brooks/Cole, Canada. 2006. Brysk., Alison. Globalization and Human Rights. University of California Press, Ltd. 2002. â€Å"Globalization and Gender Inequalities: Advancing the Status of Women Worldwide†. The Zontian. 2004. Volume 83, number 4. Cosgrove-Sacks, Carol, The European Union and developing countries : the challenges of globalization, New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1999Perlas, Nicanor, Shaping globalization : civil society, cultural power, and threefolding, Quezon City, Philippines : Center for Alternative Development Initiatives, 1999Peterson, Robert Dean. Social problems : globalization in the twenty-first century, Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, 1999Roberts, J. Timmons and Hite, Amy, From modernization to globalization : perspectives on development and social change, Malden, Mass. : Blackwell, 1999Robertson, Roland. Globalization : social theory and global culture, London : Sage, 1992

Friday, August 30, 2019


In spite f these attributes belonging to an animal, as a human, I consider these attributes significant to my being. I am constantly moving, to move on in my life, hoping to overcome events and face obstacles that are inevitably coming my way. These events that will make me happy, sad and even experience pain; it is something that I expect myself to encounter – Just as a wildebeest would expect as well. What we bring ourselves is pain but it gives us pleasure. My mind and body is as strong as the antlers on the wildebeest, which protect themselves from any dangers.We will always be moving forward no matter the circumstances. One can say, â€Å"l was alone in the crowd,† but that will never be given to express the life of a wildebeest and myself. We are constantly in a crowd or in a wildebeest's case, a heard. We are never alone, or feel alone. We are protective over the ones we love and together as a group, we choose the path that is the best choice. I always have peopl e around me – my friends and especially my family. I am supported and loved all the time. My dad would probably be the leader of the herd.The leader is generally the one that helps dudes his herd into the right direction and give teachings so their child can learn more. In my life, he supports me the most, he is always behind me – helping me obtain my goals and dreams. Furthermore, he will protect me from any dangers because I am his calf. I am standing in the meadows. I could feel the sun beating down on me and the wind rushing past me as it entangles in my hair. The grass is dancing in the wind, the sky is as blue as the ocean and the air is fresh. It smells like freshly born flowers from the early spring.In the distance, a steady beat of a drum an be heard. Overlooking the meadows, I can see dark moving figures come towards me and as they slowly came forward, I could make out the image. There before me, a herd of wildebeests that makes the earth shake and the ground lift up from the crust. In Just seconds, the herd past by me in a quick motion, creating a gust of wind to run by me and I examine them carefully without fear. They were strong, with built bodies, sturdy hooves and determined faces. I look at the baby calves who are trying to catch up to the adults with all their might.They could not run slowly. In a matter of seconds all the hooves of the wild animals are all in sync. The baby calves became strong and fast and matched the rhythm of the adult wildebeests. They have that same look as the adults, fierce and driven. I watch the herd as I see them slowly fading away into the horizon, continuing to move on without hesitation. I am the baby calf. I was Just born and welcomed into this world, a world where I have the ability to learn fast and absorb my surroundings. In other words, I would Jump the gun to do anything to reach my goal.Every day, I constantly pick up information from the people and things around me. I feed on what is happen ing all around my community, Just as a wildebeest would feed on the grass that is their land. Though humans and animals seem like two very different things, they are Just as similar as cats and dogs. To conclude, the attributes of a wildebeest is alike to myself because of we persevere through the challenges, we are protective and we are fast learners. In any situation, I will not give up; I will work hard until I have reached my goal – that is a promise.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Not decided yet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Not decided yet - Essay Example has established a causal relationship between smoking and the life span of the smoker, as opposed to establishing a correlation relationship between the two. The causal relationship requires that one variable leads to the other. In this case, the authors of the article have suggested that smoking leads to a reduction of a smoker’s life span by 10 years. This is a practical example of the authors incorrectly inferring causation from correlation, because the author ought to have stated that smoking may be related to a reduction in the lifespan of the smokers, as opposed to stating conclusively that in fact smoking causes the reduction of the lifespan of the smoker. The effect of this causal relationship established by the author is that; those people who do not smoke are guaranteed to live 10 more years, compared to the individuals who are involved in smoking. However, this assertion might not be true, because there are many smokers who live for many years compared to non-smokers based on different life factors. Therefore, this assertion cannot explain this practical variation between the assertion and the reality in life. The assertion above by the authors has come about as a result of a study that has suggested that smoking causes breast cancer. This is a case of the authors incorrectly inferring causation from correlation, because the right reporting ought to have been that there is a relationship between smoking and reduced lifespan. The authors arrived at the conclusion after the consideration of a study undertaken by researchers from the American Cancer Society, which produced findings â€Å"showing a 24% higher rate of breast cancer among women who smoked† (Press Association, 2014). This study served to add to the already existing evidence pointing to the existence of a link between the exposure to tobacco smoke and the breast cancer. This now marks the turning point of this study, from presenting a correlation relationship between breast cancer and

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Reflection of Commerce in Cadavers an Open Secret Essay

Reflection of Commerce in Cadavers an Open Secret - Essay Example The author finally concludes that the government has to clarify its role in the handling and management of activities involving human body parts, and that it is actually left with basically two choices: to redefine the laws that govern donation of body parts or to enforce strict standards and regulations governing the selling of body parts. The Structure of the Main Argument The argument is a deductive argument which is anchored on the claim that â€Å"an underground illegal market has developed largely because of inconsistent federal policies and practices† (Goodwin). This type of deductive argument is an example of Hypothetical Syllogism. The arguments or premises that support this conclusion are mainly examples of effects that are brought about by such inconsistencies in government policies regarding the handling and management of body parts. In standard form, it would look like this: P1: Inconsistent federal practices and policies give a chance for those engaged in the ill egal selling of body parts to conduct their businesses smoothly. ... r industry† is not substantiated by concrete evidence and may even be simply just a way to exaggerate the nature of this commercial exchange of body parts. Moreover, the statement â€Å"fees have come to resemble illegal payments† does not take into consideration that not all fees and not all institutions are involved in the use of illegal payments. The Article’s Use of Language The article is definitely value-laden as it is negatively biased against the government and its inefficiency in imposing its laws concerning the handling and management of human body parts. This is evident in the obvious distaste with which the author treats the government. In fact, the author uses a demeaning phrase pertaining to the fees that government laws unreasonably allow so that the illegal commercial selling of body parts would continue: â€Å"those fees have come to resemble illegal payments† (Goodwin). Moreover, the prejudice of the author against the government is also e vident in the phrases that express his accusations against them: â€Å"inconsistent federal policies and practices,† â€Å"poor oversight,† and â€Å"lax at best† to describe federal oversight (Goodwin). These are the unique characteristics of the language that the author uses to push the reader towards accepting his conclusions. Nevertheless, the language that the author uses is straightforward and not overly intellectual, and this is another reason why it appeals to the ordinary reader. The Article’s Strengths The article uses good and persuasive data to convince the readers of the inefficiency of government laws, although this information is not detailed perhaps to intentionally obscure the issue. The author has been stating unreasonable generalizations against the government since she mentions â€Å"inconsistent

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Workplace bullying in Japan as cultural phenomena Essay

Workplace bullying in Japan as cultural phenomena - Essay Example Workplace bullying is defined as repeated and health-threatening mistreatment that is humiliating, intimidating and threatening in a manner that interferes with full participation in work. The perpetrators desire to control the victim and bullies in the workplace select their victims and methods of bullying. Bullying at the workplace is a form of aggression and includes spreading of malicious rumours, gossip or physically attacking someone socially (Inceoglu, 2002). The topic is of great importance since bullying at workplace takes different forms such as undermining a person’s contribution at the workplace, threatening abuse, withholding necessary information, establishing unattainable deadlines, changing the work guidelines, intruding in to individual privacy, yelling, constant criticism, unwarranted punishments, assignment of unreasonable duties and tampering with individual personal belongings in order to intimidate the individual (McCarthy, 2001). Workplace bullying in Ja pan is a social problem that is linked to the current cultural phenomenon. Japanese culture is complex and multi-layered since it has been developing for the last a thousand years. Japanese people view the culture as a source of inspiration especially fashion, geisha traditional dancers and Samurai warriors wielding their two swords. Japanese business leaders perceive themselves as Samurai warriors and deal effectively with subordinates through bullying or issuing verbal commands that may be insulting. Social ranks and status in the society are clear and everyone is aware of each other’s age and status in the institution (Gordon, 1998). In some companies, the employees are issued with magazines that display the formal ages of each employee and ranking is used in various employment matters such as promotions, distribution of awards and recognition of superior performance (Jacobson, Hood & Buren, 2014, p 57). Japanese spontaneous sociability and nature of

Monday, August 26, 2019

Educational Standards and Principles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Educational Standards and Principles - Essay Example The administration of the educational organizations should ensure that each and every affair of the institution is completely complying with the policies and principles set by the school authorities. If an institution falters in any of the ethical standards then that means that it has failed in the principles set by the education system. There should be maximum effort to comply with the ethical standards because if an organization falters here then the whole reputation of the organization is at stake. The following are the important ethical standards: 1. Educational Research Population: As mentioned in the website of American Educational Research Association (AERA) "Educational researchers conduct research within a broad array of settings and institutions, including schools, colleges, universities, hospitals, and prisons. It is of paramount importance that educational researchers respect the rights, privacy, dignity, and sensitivities of their research populations and also the integrity of the institutions within which the research occurs." (Para.1) This is a principle, which is termed as 'preamble' by AERA. Apart from this principle there are other principles like, with the children and other vulnerable group of the research population, the educational researchers should be exceptionally careful. Under the 'standard section' of the AERA website, many explanations of how the preamble or principle should be followed is given. Hence the principle is a concise statement of the plan of action while standard is an elaborate explanatio n of how and to what level of perfection this plan of action should be carried out. Thus the AERA website that focuses on the educational research population, in order to make understand one paragraph of principles eleven points of standards have been mentioned. For example "Participants have the right to withdraw from the study at any time, unless otherwise constrained by their official capacities or roles." (Aera, para.6) is an example of the standard related to the set principle. This website is an excellent way to find out the difference between educational standards and principles in the context of educational research population. 2.Intellectual Ownership: The authors and poets who have creatively produced a piece of prose or poetry are considered to have intellectual ownership of their work. This is an educational principle whereas points like "Clerical or mechanical contributions to an intellectual product are not grounds for ascribing authorship. Examples of such technical contributions are: typing, routine data collection or analysis, routine editing, and participation in staff meetings." (AERA, para.5) is an example of the many standards that revolve around the principle of intellectual ownership. 3.Sponsors, Policymaker, and Other Uses: In the field of education many principles are framed keeping the sponsors and policy makers in mind. Sponsors are an integral part of the entire education system as all educational endeavors are successful only due to them. Whereas policy makers are the backbone for the proper functioning of the entire educational system. It is due to the sponsors and policy makers, that the different educational princ

Sunday, August 25, 2019

New venture creation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

New venture creation - Essay Example Richard Cantilon defined Entrepreneur as a person who tends to buy services at a certain prescribed prices with a view to sell it at an uncertain price. Therefore according to Cantilon an entrepreneur is a bearer to risk and which is not insurable. Another renowned French economist has defined Entrepreneur as an agent who basically unites all the necessary factors of production and who finds value of the products which re-establishes the capital that the entrepreneur employs along with the interest, wages, rent which is paid by the entrepreneur and the profit earned belongs to the entrepreneur. He may not supply capital but should have the knowledge, judgement and perseverance towards the business and possess the art of administration and superintendence (Mohanty, 2005, p.1-2). Each of the definition views an entrepreneur from a different angle and perspective but contains similar notion such as risk taking, creating, organising, wealth and innovation. Therefore Entrepreneurship is d efined as a process which aims to create something new with value and is created by devoting the accurate time as well as effort accompanying with financial, social risk and at the end receiving the desired result or reward of monetary and also of personal satisfaction as well as independence (Hisrich, 2003, p.8). In the process of making entrepreneurship there is a body of research who has been trying to identify the factors of what makes an entrepreneur actually an entrepreneur and most importantly what makes him successful. Is the in born quality of a person or whether the qualities can be natured? It has been founded that entrepreneur are particularly attuned to the universal and also the human trait which is the desire for freedom (TiE Organisation, 2003, p.17). Some of the characteristic and traits of an Entrepreneur includes factors such as risk taker where an entrepreneur usually bears all the uncertainty and defines and

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Deaf experience Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Deaf experience - Essay Example 488). Further, I learned that this group of people was impulsive to the signs whose underlying meaning seemed abusive or complicated to them despite the use being a normal one. I was nervous while communicating to the deaf people because I was unable to inform them that I was capable of hearing and speaking contrary to their expectations since the majority members in the chatroom were deaf. The fact that I was inconsistent in signing to them with the same speed they took to communicate to me spurred anxiety and I could not contemplate the alternative measures to establish in solving the imminent misunderstandings that would emanate from the delays. Despite bearing knowledge on the signs used by the majority population of people in the deaf culture, I was incompetent in elevating the desired skills as there different types of misunderstandings would result from the different perceptions that different chat members bore towards the signings (Davidson 792). Despite the challenges experienced during the chatroom conversations, the deaf people cooperated and educated me in their experiences while living with the condition as they were growing up. The chatroom experience influenced the understanding that the people were aggressive towards the people who were capable of hearing and speaking holding the belief that such people were ignorant of their inability to hear; hence, the use of verbal communication was deliberate and abusive. Further, I learned that the deaf community perceived that they were normal; hence, they were against any practices expressed by different people whose meaning communicated their inability to participate in verbal communication. Other members with whom I communicated to in the chatroom expressed their dissatisfaction to the practices used by the society in providing special learning centers to the deaf (Hauser

Restoration of the Parks Ecosystems Research Proposal

Restoration of the Parks Ecosystems - Research Proposal Example Ecological restoration involves a deliberate move that is initiated to reinstate the lost and existing components of an ecosystem. Restoration of an ecosystem may become necessary if it has been mutilated, altered or destroyed because of direct and indirect human activities or a result of other natural factors Wildfires, flash floods, turbulent storms and volcanic eruptions have destroyed natural habitats of organisms to the point that the natural balance in the system is no longer exist. Although the original state of an ecosystem might be impossible to achieve, restoration should focus on trying to get to that condition. It is very important to note there are several factors hampering restoration efforts to the initial level, these include current constraint and some other factors that may change the restoration path. The initial level of an ecosystem hugely affected by human activity and other factors may be difficult or impossible to determine with accuracy (Maltby, 2008). The be st mechanism to build restoration efforts is by embarking on building of sufficient knowledge of the ecosystem. About the High Park This is a valuable and certainly unique environment in the city of Toronto, as it a host to numerous interactions of different organisms. Besides these organisms, millions of people visit the park every year, some come do jog, walk their dogs, play soccer, cycle and other outdoor activities and others just come to marvel at this beauty (Egan, Hjerpe and Abrams, 2011).  ... Fourth, the park consist of a total of 99 existing significant plant species with 4 provincially rare, 9 regionally rare and 86 locally rare plant species. Fifth, there are 250 migratory bird species and a host of 48 breeding bird species, about 6 butterflies of conservation concern, 19 species of mammals and 8 species of amphibians and reptiles. The park was established in the year 1873, it is one the heartbeat of Toronto life as it is the key to the daily lives of the residents of the city. This is the reason that makes it important to develop sufficient proposal to restore the park to its initial setting for people to use continually and the organisms to be hosted unharmed. This is because human activities in the park have lead to some organisms to be endangered and the degradation of organisms and certain locations of the park such as the ponds, the wetlands, forests and meadows, wildlife and creeks. Therefore, to restore the park for the future generations to benefit from and ma rvel at, it is important that restoration efforts of the park to be taken seriously and further be compliment by proper management and maintenance. This proposal aims at determining strategies and mechanisms that can be effectively applied to restore High Park’s ecosystems. Image 1: An aerial view of High Park showing massive human activities Adopted from Formation of the High Park The area occupied by the park currently was composed of glaciers in the Ice Age; it owes its topography and soil to this period. Researchers insist that as warming began, the melting glaciers started to move to the north of the country, resulting in the formation of a lake, which is very

Friday, August 23, 2019

UNIT 3 Science DB Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

UNIT 3 Science DB - Essay Example In fact whatever energy I am using at my home is residential use of energy. Now it was time to go college. I picked up my bike to reach there. In this process I used energy for transportation and fuel was petrol. College classroom lighting was also using commercial electricity. After the day I reached back home and after dinner and couple of hours on internet, went to sleep. My primary source of energy at home is electricity. Day 2 /Day 3: Daily activities of these days were almost same, apart from my visit to hospital on day three. There also lightings, lifts, ACs and other medical equipment were running on electricity supplied by electric company but backup was also available in form of generators running on diesel. One more form of energy which I saw here, was that for heating water. They used solar panels for heating it. In above experiences, main supplier for my daily energy needs was our electrical company, and I could not have experience of largest energy end use i.e. industrial, with highest expected growth rate of 2.4 percent per year (International Energy Outlook, 2006, p.1). Our electricity company is MAHAGENCO. As per its website, it generates electricity mostly from its Thermal Power Plants which uses Coal as the main fuel. This fact is in line with world over trend, wherein 40 percent of electricity is produced from Coal as a main fuel If I look back on my energy consumption, there are various areas where in I can make certain changes to make my self more energy efficient. This can be achieved by reducing my gross energy consumption as well as using more and more alternative energy sources. By reducing my energy consumption I would be contributing, whatever little it may be, towards reducing anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which is estimated to grow at an average rate of 2.1 percent per year from 2003 to 2030 (International Energy Outlook, 2006, p.72), and associated green house effects. By

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Lady Macbeth, an honoured hostess and a fiend-like Queen Essay Example for Free

Lady Macbeth, an honoured hostess and a fiend-like Queen Essay The audience witness a total transformation of Lady Macbeth from a powerful, scheming woman to a sad and lonely wretch. By the end of this tragedy she has nothing to live for, is riddled with guilt and has lost all sanity. At the opening of the play the audience see how fervent her hunger for power and status is when she summons evil spirits; Fill me from the crown to the toe top-full of the direst cruelty; (Act One, Scene 5, lines 40-41). This statement displays Lady Macbeths character deeply nefarious, it would perturb the superstitions of the Christian spectators. The audience might also perceive her to be disturbed as in that same soliloquy she asks the spirits to, Make thick my blood, At the time that the play was written thick blood was associated with illness and derangement. It would have been most horrific for the audience to listen to the character persisting that she did not want to be womanly, especially for someone of her status is society. Pronouncing that she wished to be unsexed and that she wanted the spirits to Come to my womans breasts, and take my milk for gall, would outrage their perfervid Christian views as women were supposed to be maternal and loving whereas she uses the oxymoron to intensify her wish to become corrupt and inhuman. Immediately after she calls the spirits, Shakespeare returns Macbeth to the stage, scheduling his wife the ideal time to discuss her plan. Lady Macbeth begins to instruct him as she says, Look like th innocent flower, but be the serpent undert. She uses this metaphor to reassure her husband and make known to him that others wont realise hed be doing anything wrong but at the same time urging him to commit the deed,ergo underlining the way in which it is her evil inventions which will destroy Duncan. The Shakespearean audience would be very disturbed to witness such wicked schemes emanating from a female character; women were particularly governed by societys expectations and considered to be the fairer, gentler sex, leaving political machinations to their male counterparts. Along with manipulating Macbeth into executing all of her schemes, she also is competent to cover up after him when he is vulnerable to suspicion. Without her help and guidance, Macbeth would have not been able to consummate his feats. After Macbeths first act in which he commits regicide by killing his dear king Duncan, he is incapable of coming to terms with his actions and returning with the weapons to Duncans chamber. His ever-dutiful wife finishes the task. Give me the daggers. The sleeping and the dead are but pictures. Her control here reveals her power and determination. We see her draw a veil over Macbeths behaviour again after he has taken King Duncans life as Macbeth makes the mistake of killing the guards, when he knows that as a soldier himself he should interrogate suspects. After Macduff attempts to question Macbeth on his reasons, Lady Macbeth faints (Act 2 Scene 3 line 112). This shows her ability to extemporise when the situation requires it. Indeed there are several occasions when Lady Macbeth steps in to avoid her husband being put under suspicion. Her role in the banquet scene after Macbeth sees Banquos ghost has a reason. Macbeth shows signs of weakening before the spirit of Banquo. However, Lady Macbeth shows her authority over the proceedings. She instructs all but herself and Macbeth in Act 3 Scene 4 lines 118-9 to Stand not upon the order of your going. But go at once, thus managing to clear their estate of all the guests who had been visiting, which would have been a difficult feat especially for a woman yet her determination impels her capable. We sporadically notice that she is not such a nefarious character, as she would like to believe. An example of her vulnerability is when she needs a drink to give her courage in order to go through with the plan for the murder of Duncan, That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold. If she were truly a fiend she would feel nothing. Similarly, when she is anxious and awaiting Macbeths return she utters that, Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had donet. Had she been entirely evil she would have distanced herself more and be unable to draw comparisons. The decisive moment however for Lady Macbeth is when she detects that she is no longer needed. Act 3 Scene 3 lines 6-7 describe this further when she asks Macbeth, Whats to be done? and he proves to her that he is no longer the mere student but the master as he replies, Be the innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck, till thou applaud the deed. Macbeths use of dearest chuck would have been supposed to be playful however in this context would have aggravated his wife and spurred on the doubts that would have been forming in her mind. The quotation is also analogous to what Lady Macbeth had said to him in Act 1 Scene 5 about looking innocent, thus extra proof of his imitation of his wifes influence. Lady Macbeths return to the action in Act 5, scene 1 is dramatic in its irony. She is a mere shadow of her former self, unable to sleep and riddled with guilt she re-enacts the role she played in Duncans murder, and in so doing betrays her guilt to her waiting woman and, of course, the audience. The constant washing of her hands and utterances Out damned spot Whod have thought the old man to have so much blood serve to expose her crimes, her sentiments in Act Two A little water cleans me of this deed are shockingly highlighted in the closing Act with poignant irony. Delirious and disturbing outbursts: Heres the smell of blood still; all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this hand. Oh, oh, oh! (Line 44-6) and her use of metaphor amplifies her acute mental torture and pain, she is a woman so construed by guilt that she loses all sanity. Lady Macbeths downfall, like her husbands, is a tragic one as she ultimately dies from her terrible crime. Like Macbeth, Lady Macbeth enjoyed reputation and status as the wife of the greatest Scottish warrior, much loved and honoured by king and county. However, she is as much Macbeth, guilty of vaulting ambition and when she succumbs to that fatal flaw she can no longer function. Indeed, so consumed by guilt, Lady Macbeth commits suicide knowing that her crimes have involved interfering with the divine right of kings. Interestingly, however, the audience see many times throughout this drama when Lady Macbeth is not so cold as she is made out to be. We know that she is not a fiend as we see on numerous occasions her inability to carry out acts herself, act 2 Scene 2, line 13-4, Had he not resembled my father as he slept. I had donet. She is unable to distance herself from the stunt and even helping to carry out the act she finds difficult as she needs help to bring the courage she needs: That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold; illuminating further how she has some empathy for Duncan. The audience see just how terrible an effect all the events since the witches first met Macbeth have had on her mental state as they hear how she has taken her own life in Act 5 scene 5 from Malcolm. To conclude, it is clear that Lady Macbeth begins her role as honoured; she certainly enjoys the wifely role of Scotlands hero. However, through greed and ambition, she forfeits her reputation and status. Certainly her actions are fiend-like but she does betray some small shreds of conscience and is therefore well aware of her choices. A totally fiendish character would not experience guilt, but Lady Macbeth goes insane simply because she knows she has been immoral and sinful. Lady Macbeth, an honoured hostess and a fiend-like Queen.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Effective Appraisal Methods Undertaken By Companies Commerce Essay

Effective Appraisal Methods Undertaken By Companies Commerce Essay With the increase of globalisation and new technologies of information and communication, businesses are facing more challenges than before. Furthermore, people are moving from their own country to relocate elsewhere. This give more difficulties to businesses to understand not only their customers, but also their workforces as they are coming from different part of the world and might have different way of thinking and acting. An organisation is a group of people working together in order to achieve the goals and objective that have been set. Therefore managing those people effectively and efficiency must be a company primary focus. This research is based on the type of performance appraisal that a company should be used in order to evaluate correctly its workforce. In order words, there are many different methods such as: 360 degree feedback systems, critical incidents, forced distribution, self-evaluation, essay evaluation, behavioural observation scales and management by objectives. These methods can be divided into two categories: past-oriented methods and future-oriented methods Statement of the problem Human Resource Management is the management of the human capital, workforce within an organisation. It has many functions which are: recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisals and employees promotion. M. Armstrong define it as: a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisations most values assets- the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives (G. Armstrong, 2006, P.3). As people make an organisation, it is important for managers to deal with their personnel enquiries effectively. Evaluate or conducting performance appraisal on employee is also very important and it is one of Human Resource Management functions. There are no standard performance evaluation methods; companies chose the method that satisfies their needs and requirement. A method is chosen according the nature and the culture of the business. Also it is important to say that each method have both advantages and disadvantages and must be analysed carefully before taken into practice. Aims and objectives of the study In order to carry out properly, accurately and normally this research, it is crucial and important to point out it aims and objectives. The research aims are: The first objective of this research is to underline the importance of performance appraisal within an organization. Why Human Resource Managers conduct or evaluate their employees. What is the reason why employees should be evaluated after a certain period of time? What is the main purpose of employee evaluation? Is employee performance related to his/her pay? Or is it because the company just want to know who is performing very well and who is not? Also has the business notice that performance appraisal lead to a kind of motivation factor for its workforce? Because some employees would like to be rewarded whenever they think they are doing a good job. The second objective of this research is to find out which performance appraisal method is undertaken by PEABODY and why have they chosen that particular method Thirdly, it is also essential to notice that performance appraisal do not only matter for the organization but also influence employees. Therefore whenever a company evaluate their employees how do they do it? Which evaluation process to do take to appraise them? Are employees getting feedback on their performance? Finally, what strategy is used by human resource manager for employees with good and poor performance appraisal? LITERATURE REVIEW According to G. Dessler, performance appraisal can be defined as: the process of evaluating an employees current and/or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. (G. Dessler, 2008, P.336). In other words, performance appraisal helps the management to identify and evaluate their employees strengths and weaknesses. As result of conducting performance appraisal by an organization, managers will be able to adopt the best suitable motivation method. For example: if an employee feedback is positive, managers should motivate or reward him because they want him to keep having good performance in the future. M. Foot C. Hook added: Managers conduct performance appraisal for variety of reason such as: improve current performance, identify training needs, to award salary increases, to increase motivation [] (M. Foot C. Hook, 2005 P.268). It can also be seen as a motivation factors when employees have the feedback on their appraisal. Managers should take different strategies with employees who have poor performance. For example they can b e sent for training and development. But before doing so, the Human resource manager should identify the reason why they have poor performance. Figure 2 explains the steps and procedures to follow when dealing with poor performance. (S. Gilmore S. William, 2009, P.247). Performance appraisal is directly link with employees training and development because when it has been conducted that an employer might be able to identify whether if their employees have to go for a training program or not. Additionally, some employees are paid depending on their performance especially those who work in the marketing department. Therefore, the company must carry out performance appraisal after a certain period of time. (G. Dessler, 2008, P.339). Furthermore, for a company to achieve their goals and objectives, each and every worker in the organization should achieve their own target. DIFFERENT TYPE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL There many different types of performance appraisal such as 360 degree appraisal, forced distribution method, self-appraisal, rating scales method, critical incident method, ranking method, essay method and management by objective. 360-Degree Feedback Systems Armstrong stated: 360-degree feedback is also known as multi source assessment, is a process in which someones performance is assessed and feedback is given by number of people who may include their manager, subordinates, colleagues and customers (Armstrong, 2009, P.644). This assessment method is done by different persons in order to reduce or eliminate judgmental decision and bias. As an employee performance needs to be looked in a wider aspect, internal assessment done by managers only will not be as accurate as possible. This method is useful when appraising employees who work in call centres, receptionists and customer service. Where pass the majority of their working time dealing the customer enquiries. It is also a combination of different sources of performance appraisal information to create many different evaluator or 360-degree appraisal and feedback system. Jobs are multifaceted, and different people see different things. As the name implies, 360-Degree feedback is intended to provide employees with as accurate a view of their perf ormance. As all others methods of appraising workers performance, this method has both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages 360-degree feedback has many advantages such as: firstly, it looks at the employee performance from different point of view. It includes collecting multiple perspective of managers performance by allowing employees to compare their own personal evaluation with others people point of view. (R. Noe et al, 2003, P.388). Secondly, Armstrong argued that it increases awareness by senior management that they too have development needs. Sometimes managers and board director believe that they know everything and therefore do not need to be appraised on their performance. (Armstrong, 2009, P.646). This frequently happens in organization where autocratic management style is adopted which stipule that managers are always right employees should always follow without any suggestions. Finally, feedback receive are more reliable and objective, therefore adequate actions can be undertaken. (Armstrong, 2009, P.646) Disadvantages According to Armstrong, people are not always honest and therefore wrong analysis can be made by managers. Also, people mind can change time to time. J. Ivancevich added that: providing constructive feedback require a plan and well-trained rater. And this is not typically found in organization. (J. Ivancevich, 2007, P.260). However some has strategies to make sure that 360 work as effectively as possible. For instance: to encourage participation in its customer performance appraisal process, Xerox business services plant a tree for each customer who return a completed form. (Jackson et al, 2009 P. 334). The introduction of 360-degree feedback in place where pre-evaluation had not been conducted can be very dangerous. For instance: in place where there is low level of trust and high level of competition. When conducting your 360-degree, customers might not give their real opinion about an employee performance. Furthermore, this can also lead to an increase in bias. If an employee is assessed by customers who are friends and/or family, t hey might rate the employee according to their personal feeling rather than the employees performance. Another disadvantage of 360-degree feedback is that, it does involve too much bureaucracy as everyone will be asked to assess the particular employee. Therefore this may require lots of time. Additionally, conducted performance appraisal is not enough but taking effective decision after having performance appraisal result is very important. Lack of feedback may de-motivate employees to take another one next time. Moreover, they need to know what are their strengths and weakness. This is the reason why some companies conduct self-assessment method of performance appraisal. Forced Distribution G. Dessler says: The forced distribution method is similar to grading on a curve; predetermined percentages of rates are placed in various performance categories. (G. Dessler, 2008, P.345). Most of the time, companies divide it into three where there is the first category w here companys best employees are placed, then the second category where the second best in located and finally the last category where usually poor performance is found.(Jackson et al, 2009 P. 335). Those who fall in the first group are encouraged continuing with great performance with some options available. Employees in the second group category are also encouraged to increase their potentiality in order to reach the top first group and can get some bonuses or promotion relative to their performance. But those in the group are not given any kind of bonuses. This is where the management will look at the various reasons why there is poor performance and may decide whether training needs to be undertaken or not. Some managers will give a warning if poor performance continues and others may even be harsher and fired. Jackson et al added: In this method, the appraiser distributes employees across several categories of performance following a set rule about the distribution of rating that are permitted. (Jackson et al, P. 335) Self-Appraisal Self-appraisal method is the form of performance appraisal technique where employees appraise their own performance. Before adopting this method, HR manager should make sure that their employees understand their objectives and the criteria used for evaluation. (Mondy, 2008, P.251). This method prone the fact that only the employee is able to know what he/she does well and what he/she is lacking and need to be improved. J. Beardwell and T. Claydon added: self-assessment is the only way to give a complete picture of the performance of the employees and to avoid a criticise-defend scenario (J. Beardwell T. Claydon, 2007, P.512). Furthermore, this method require the employee to have a good knowledge of the job requirement and role so that he/she will easily identify the gap between what he is doing and what he is require to do. METHODOLOGY In order to carry out the aim of this project, it is essential to build a very good research methodology. This will include the framework that will be used in order to answer the question. Knowing what the different types of performance appraisal are, research methodology will elaborate all the different methods that will be used to collect as much information as possible relating to the topic Research Methods The aim of the project is to find out what performance appraisal method should be undertaken by company to evaluate with effectiveness and accuracy their workforce, therefore qualitative and quantitative research will be useful to conduct the project efficiently. Quantitative research is mostly used when question beginning by how many are often used. Quantitative analysis deals with the numbers and uses mathematical operations to investigate the properties of data. (N. Walliman, 2006, P.113). As compared to qualitative research, quantitative researches develop technique that produce quantitative data and which can be classified easily. Qualitative research on the other hand is a method which leads to the collection of qualitative data which are data that cannot be quantified. Qualitative research usually answer question such as: what do think about? What is your opinion about one particular product? Qualitative research deals with feeling, attitudes, opinions and ideas. It is very difficult to analyse as people might change mind or opinion time to time. J. Creswell added by saying that: qualitative research begins with assumptions. A worldview, the possible use of a theoretical lens, and the study of research problem inquiring into the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem. (J. Creswell, 2007, P.37) Data collection The data will be collected using many sources of data collection. Secondary data collection such as: books, magazine, articles and academic journals will be used to gather much information as far as performance appraisal is concerned. Although secondary data are often books and journals, it is important to note that this source also entails non-written materials such as: voice and video recordings, pictures, drawings, films and television programmes. (M. Saunders et al, 2007, P.248). Any kind of secondary materials on performance appraisal and human resource management related to the research question will be used for the project. Primary data collection such as: questionnaire, interviews and observation will be adopted to collect information. Those data are not available on books and are more reliable than secondary data. In order to collect primary data, questionnaire will be designed and given to one HR manager and two assistant at PEABODY. The questionnaire will carry some useful questions such as: are you conducting performance appraisal on your employees? What is the importance of doing it? Which performance appraisal method have you used or are you using at the moment? What are the reasons why that method was chosen? After appraising your employees do you give them feedback on their performance? What step or strategy do you adopt with poor performance and good performance employees? Interviews will also be done to some workers in order to have an overall picture of the topic. Data analysis Data will be analysed by looking at the findings from all those different sources of data collection. Primary data analysis will be compared to the literature review in order to know if what is written in the books is followed by organisations. Findings might be presented as graph, diagrams or charts. GANTT CHART Time Activities April May June July 15th 30th 15th 30th 15th 30th 15th Introduction Literature review Research Methodology Primary Data collection Data analysis Conclusion

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Global Marketing In Contrast With Local Marketing Marketing Essay

Global Marketing In Contrast With Local Marketing Marketing Essay This report analyse the concept of global marketing in contrast with local marketing, examined with the help of different scholars of all time. It has also been advocated that a new concept of glocal marketing has now prevail in the global scenario to comprehend different markets of the world. There are certain issues and challenges companies face when going global which has been explained with the help of contextual determinants of international marketing explained by the renowned theorist of marketing called Porter and Kotler. The determinants are political stability, government policy, ideology driven economy, fear of colonialism, marketing transfer issues, and lack of infrastructure, north-south dichotomy, east-west dichotomy, and product life cycles. There are certain entry modes or global marketing strategies through which companies can do international and global business, like exporting, licensing, franchising, joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries. However, the greater the investment the more would be the control and risk. It has been also analysed that franchising appeared to be the most successful means of doing business internationally, which has also been advocated by the case study of McDonalds. The 4Ps of marketing which has been the basis of many marketing plans previously, has now become 7Ps of marketing, that is, product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physicals, the case of McDonalds operating in Saudia Arabia has been analysed according to that. Hence, it has been concluded that companies that are going global cannot treat the whole world as one homogenous market as there are many different cultures, circumstances and characteristics in the world. Therefore the concept of glocal marketing is more feasible to be adopted when going global. INTRODUCTION Global marketing, the most profound change is the orientation of the company toward markets and associated planning activities. At this stage, companies treat the world, including their home market, as one market. Market segmentation decisions are no longer focused on national borders. Instead, market segments are defined by the income levels, usage patterns, or other factors that often span countries and regions. (Cateora and Graham, 2005:312) Keegan (1989:11) mentions two motives for the globalisation of marketing activities. One is to take advantage of opportunities for growth and expansion, and the other is survival. Companies that fail to pursue global opportunities will eventually lose their domestic markets, since they may be pushed aside by stronger and more competitive global competitors. Dahinger and Muhlbacher (1991:5) state that a global approach allows companies to achieve a concentration and coordination of marketing activities, which stimulates the companies effort for globalisation. Sevesson (2002:574-583) extracted from Lamont (1996), he argues that global marketing expresses initiatives to find new markets, segments, niches; the development of buying and selling opportunities; and of marketing across international boundaries. The globalisation of marketing activities includes specific tasks such as the organisation of worldwide efforts, the research of domestic and foreign markets, the finding of new partn ers, the purchasing of comprehensive support services and the managing of the cost of international transactions (Sevesson, 2002:574-583). Johansson (2000:6) describes global marketing as the integration that can involve standardised products, uniform packaging, identical brand names, synchronised product introductions, similar advertising messages or coordinated sales campaigns across markets in several countries. This report undergoes with the issues, challenges and strategy of global marketing along with the international marketing mix of McDonalds, followed by some recommendations to end with. METHODOLOGY An exploratory form of research has been carried out and the data has been collected from the secondary sources, that is, through journals, articles and books. However, the analysis has been done in a vivid, analytical and logical way. LITERATURE REVIEW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GLOBAL AND LOCAL MARKETING: Keegan and Green (2000:2) state that one difference between regular marketing and global marketing is the scope of activities. Another difference is that global marketing involves an understanding of concept and strategies that should be applied in conjunction with universal marketing issues to ensure a global marketing success. Whereas, local and domestic marketing strive exclusively to maximise adaptation, tailoring, differences, concentration, independence, flexibility and separation of marketing activities within market frontiers. A local or domestic related marketing strategy recognises the necessity to consider locally-related issues in the performance of marketing activities in the market place. An international marketing strategy is the widening of local or domestic marketing strategy that is applicable beyond the home markets frontiers while global marketing strategy refers to marketing activities towards a wide selection of foreign markets (Sevensson, 2002:574-583). Johansson (2000:2-6) states that there are four factors that influence companies to strive towards the globalisation of marketing, namely the categories of market, competition, cost and government. These factors are often referred to as the four major globalisation drivers. Originally, Yip (1989:23-63) discusses and classifies the globalisation drivers thus: Market drivers consisting of homogenous needs, global customers, global channels and transferable marketing; Cost drivers categorized as economies of scale and scope, learning and experience, sourcing efficiencies, favourable logistics, differences in country cost and skills, and product development costs; Competitive drivers consisting of the interdependence between countries and the competitors that globalise or might globalise; Government drivers classified as favourable trade policies, compatible technical standards and common marketing regulations. Usually, most marketing activities have to be adapted to local conditions, characteristics and circumstances in the market place. Therefore, it is not suitable to apply a global marketing strategy, since locally related issues of the marketing activities normally have to be taken into consideration in the market place. Daft (2000:2) states that: we must remember we do not do business in markets; we do business in our future, we will succeed because we will also understand and appeal to local differences. The twenty-first century demands nothing less Therefore, the concept of glocal marketing is introduced to be a compromise, which in part reflects the aspirations of a pure global marketing strategy, while the necessity of locally related issues of marketing activities is simultaneously recognised (Svensson, 2002:574-583). For example, McDonald modifies its traditional Big Mac in India, where it is known as the Maharaja Mac. This burger features two mutton patties because most Indians consider cows sacred and dont eat beef (Cateora and Graham, 2005:56-178). Similarly, the McDonalds restaurants which are operating in the Muslim countries use halal meat. In the same way, McDonalds standardises its processes, logo, most of its advertising, store decor and layouts whenever and wherever possible. However, you will find wine on the menu in France and beer in Germany, a Filipino-style spicy burger in Manila and pork burgers in Thailand-all to accommodate local tastes and customs. The point is, being global is a mindset, a way of looking at the market (Cateora and Graham, 2005:56-178). Thus, glocal marketing make every effort on the way to optimise the steadiness as well as the harmony of the focal organisations marketing conduct on functioning, tactical, and strategic points in terms of standardisation in opposition to adaptation, homogenisation in opposition to tailoring, similarity in opposition to dissimilarity, focus in opposition to dispersion, reliance in opposition to autonomy, synchronisation in opposition to suppleness and integration in opposition to division. THE GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGIES: There are certain global marketing strategies which can be opted by the organisations in order to prevail in the global scenario. But, before making any choice, the analysis of the market is a vital issue which includes market characteristics (such as potential sales, strategic importance, cultural differences and country restrictions), companys capabilities and characteristics. There are numerous examples of organisations who have simply either imitated other companies or came up with extremely new strategy to enter into the global scenario. The decision of going global mainly depends upon companys capabilities and the market characteristics in order to make an effort to develop a market or to maintain its position permanently. There are different ways which can be adopted by the companies in order to do global marketing, likely, exporting, contractual agreements, strategic alliances and direct foreign investments. Some modes of entering the market are more risk aversive but constit ute more control as well. Firms that are beginning to internationalize and multinational companies that are expanding in nations outside their home base are both faced with the challenge of choosing the best structural arrangement. Four major alternatives are exporting, licensing, joint ventures, and wholly-owned subsidiaries (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). EXPORTING: Exporting can be either direct or indirect. With direct exporting the company sells to a customer in another country (Cateora and Graham, 2005:312-528). Exporting differs from the other modes in that a companys final or intermediate product is manufactured outside the target country and subsequently transferred to it. Indirect exporting uses intermediaries who are located in the companys home country and who take responsibility to ship and market the products. With direct exporting the producer firm does not use home country middlemen, although it may utilize target country intermediaries. This is the most common approach employed by companies taking their first international step because the risks of financial loss can be minimised. The Internet is becoming increasingly important as foreign market entry method. Initially, internet marketing focused on domestic sales, but later on a concept of international internet marketing was developed when companies got orders from other countri es. Today lots of companies are entering into the circle of making their own websites, which indeed has created a competitive advantage overall. Such firms can be called accidental exporters (Michael and Ilkka, 2003:224). Apart from that there are different intermediaries which serve as a major change agent to encourage companies towards exports. Like, chambers of commerce and other business associations that interact with firms locally that can frequently heighten international marketing interests. Similarly, Government efforts both on the national or local level can also serve as a major change agent. In the same way, there are other governmental entities that are actively encouraging firms to participate in the international market. In addition to it, there are many Export Management Companies operating in the domestic markets that specialise in performing international marketing services. They either take the title to the goods or operate internationally on their own account, or they perform services as agents (Cateora and Graham, 2005:398-528) and (Michael and Ilkka, 2003: 224). Another major intermediary is the trading company. The concept was originated by the European trading houses such as the Fuggers and was soon formalised by the monarchs. Today, the most famous trading companies are the sogoshosha of Japan. These general trading companies play a unique role in world commerce by importing, exporting, countertrading, investing and manufacturing. Because of their vast size, they can benefit from economies of scale and perform their operations at very low profit margins (Michael and Ilkka, 2003:224-245). CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENTS: Contractual Agreements are long-term, non-equity associations between a company and another in a foreign market. Contractual agreements generally involve the transfer of technology, processes, trademarks or human skills. In short, they serve as a means of transfer of knowledge rather than equity (Cateora and Graham, 2005:434-450). Licensing is non-equity, contractual mode with one or more local partner firms. A company transfers to a foreign organization the right to use some or all of the following property: patents, trademarks, company name, technology, and/or business methods. The licensee pays an initial fee and/or percentage of sales to the licensor (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). The advantages of licensing are more apparent when capital is scarce, import restrictions forbid other means of entry, a country is sensitive to foreign ownership, or it is necessary to protect patents and trademarks against cancellation for non-use (Cateora and Graham, 2005:434-450). Franchising is a rapidly growing form of licensing in which the franchisor provides a standard package of products, systems and management services, whereas the franchisee provides market knowledge, capital and personal involvement in management. The combination of skills permits flexibility in dealing with local market conditions and yet provides the parent firm with a reasonable degree of control (Cateora and Graham, 2005:434-450). The emblematic reasons in support of the international growth of franchise systems are market potential, financial increase as well as the saturation of domestic markets. Apart from all the compensation of franchising it has a number of disadvantages as well likely, the affirmation of assets from the franchisee point of view. An added apprehension is the level of standardisation seeing as the adjustments are essential in several conditions like McDonalds has developed non-beef burgers to cater the customers in India since cows are treated as sacred in th eir culture. To encourage better organised and more successful growth many companies turn to the master franchising system, wherein foreign partners are selected and awarded the rights to a large territory in which they in turn can sub franchise. As a result, the franchiser gains market expertise and an effective screening mechanism for new franchises, without incurring costly mistakes (Michael and Ilkka, 2003:224-272). Despite provisional setbacks at some stage in the worldwide economic slump right after the twirl of the millennium, franchising is still expected to be the greatest growing market way in strategy. For instance, McDonalds first store in Moscow had seven hundred seating arrangements and twenty seven cash registers. Joint Ventures is differentiated from other types of strategic alliances or collaborative relationships, in that a joint venture is a partnership of two or more participating companies that join forces to create a separate legal entry. McGraw-Hill explained that there are four factors associated with joint ventures which are appended below: Joint ventures are established, separate, legal entities. They acknowledge intent by the partners to share in the management of the joint ventures. They are partnerships between legally incorporated entities such as companies, chartered organisations, or governments and not between individuals. Equity positions are held by each of the partners. Wholly Owned Subsidiaries Wholly-owned operations are subsidiaries in another nation in which the parent company has full ownership and sole responsibility for the management of the operation (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). These global marketing strategies may be differentiated according to three characteristics of the modes that have been identified (Woodcock, 1994:253-274): 1 quantity of resource commitment required; 2 amount of control; 3 level of technology risk. Resource commitments are the dedicated assets that cannot be employed for other uses without incurring costs. Resources may be intangible, such as managerial skills, or tangible, such as machines and money. The amount of required resources varies dramatically with the entry mode, ranging from almost none with indirect exporting, to minimal training costs in licensing, to extensive investments in facilities and human resources in wholly-owned subsidiaries (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). Control is the ability and willingness of a firm to influence decisions, systems, and methods in foreign markets. In a franchise type of licensing agreement, control over the operations is granted to the franchisee in exchange for some type of payment and for the promise to abide by the terms of the contract. Thus, the licensor has little direct control. In a joint venture control is shared formally according to level of ownership, as when equity ownership over 50 percent gives one of the partners the largest number of directors on the board. However, informal control mechanisms may also be exerted as when one partner possesses and uses knowledge and information that the other lacks. Wholly-owned subsidiaries are attractive to many companies because this mode enables the MNC to exert the most control in decision-making. Technology risk is a third parameter of decision-making. This concept can be defined as the potential that a firms applied knowledge (tangible and/or intangible) will be unintentionally transferred to a local firm. In a licensing agreement, the risk of the licensee reproducing and using the licensors technology in the future is fairly high. Joint venture partners may also learn and acquire unspecified elements of the other firms technology in the context of their partnership. Technology risk is probably lowest in a wholly-owned subsidiary, since the operations are under the control of only one firm (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). Resource commitment, control, and technology risk are highly correlated. For example, as implied above, increased control leads to lower technology risk. Yet, control also requires increased resource commitment. Some researchers have argued that the entry mode decision consists mainly of determining the levels of resource commitment, control, and technology risk that the international entrant desires or can accept. Since each mode has a certain level of each factor, the entry decision can seem clear cut (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). In practice, the entry mode decision is highly complex. Besides the previously discussed qualities of each mode, there are a host of target market factors and within company factors that may affect decision making. Certain antecedent conditions affect whether to use, say, a high control mode or a method that requires few resources (Osland, Taylor and Zoe, 2001:153-261). MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES: Standardization proponent argued that the world and the people living in it have similar wants and needs as it has become one homogenous market due to the intervention of international media specifically the television broadcasting, which has ultimately change the whole global scenario and made it to stand on common characteristics, circumstances, needs and wants. Champions of localization argue that the proponents of standardisation had based their theory on faulty assumption, that it says the world has become a homogenous market, which is not true as the standardisation proponents have overlooked the cultural differences between the countries which ultimately play a vital role in consumer behaviour regardless of the fact of expansion of media globally. The study of Vignali (2001:97-111) extracted some work of Ohmae (1989) which states that: Large companies must become more global if they hope to compete. They must change from companies that treat their foreign operations as secondary, to companies that view the entire world as a single borderless market. Similarly, Vignali (2001:97-111) also extracted Czinkota and Ronnenken (1995) who believed that: Altering and adjusting the marketing mix determinants are essential and vital to suit local tastes, meet special needs and consumers non-identical requirements. The debate between these two school of thoughts are still on but most of the scholars advocates regional segmentation strategy that the practice of market segmentation in domestic markets is a clear indicator of the ineffectiveness of treating the whole world as a homogeneous market, as significant tool when entering global. Regional market segmentation examines homogeneous segments, those with similar demand functions, across world markets. Assessing the similarities and differences between consumers across markets, this strategy achieves the advantages of both standardization and localization (Vignali 2001:97-111). FINDINGS ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL MARKETING There are certain contextual determinants Porter (1986) and Kotler (1991) which are the issues and challenges organisations face that ultimately shape the marketing practices between countries (Sheth and Parvartiyar, 2001. 16-29). CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANTS OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING In view of the fact that there are huge literatures in black and white on these determinants, consequently rather than going into detail few points would be discussed which results as a challenge or create issues for the organisations when going global. The first four determinants (political stability, government policy, ideology-driven economy, and fear of colonialism) are more responsible for the prescription of multi domestic marketing practices; therefore, there exists more anecdotal and trade literature and less academic research on them. This includes such managerial decisions as selection of countries with which to do business and specific entry strategies. Most of this has required the understanding and utilization of what has been recently referred to as the fifth P of marketing (politics and public relations). Unfortunately, there is very little theoretical foundation underlying these determinants, partly because international marketing has not borrowed constructs and theories from the social sciences, including political science. Instead it has relied on the framework provided in international business literature, wherein barriers to conducting international business have received considerable attention. However, much of it is based on simply the environmental and policy differences across countries and its consequential impact on the choice of market entry modes and operating strategies (Sheth and Parvartiyar, 2001:16-29). The next three determinants (marketing transfer issues, lack of infrastructure, and North-South dichotomy) need a little more description. Marketing transfer issues relate to the operational challenges of product, price, distribution, and promotion adjustments across national boundaries due to divergence in support and core value chain activities including materials, people, processes and facilities. Its purpose is to understand what market factors, including consumer differences and unavailability of marketing institutions, would pose difficulties to the multinational firm in transferring its successful international marketing programs to other countries (Sheth and Parvartiyar, 2001:16-29). The lack of infrastructure refers to inadequate availability of transportation, communications, physical, financial, natural, and human resources, especially in emerging markets. This lack of infrastructure impacts the adjustment process for the marketing mix as well as the implementation of the marketing program in foreign countries. Finally, the North-South dichotomy refers to the have and have-not countries of the world and is a direct reflection of the traditional economic development theories and their importance to international marketing practices. Academic research related to these three determinants is moderately rich and seems to be grounded in the theories of economic development, logistics and public policy (Sheth and Parvartiyar, 2001:16-29). Finally, most of the academic research in international marketing has been focused on the last two determinants: East-West dichotomy and product life cycles. The first refers to the cultural differences between nations at both a macro and a micro level of understanding and explanation. The second refers to the birth and death theories of product life cycles as they move across national boundaries (Sheth and Parvartiyar, 2001:16-29). Likely, McDonald is on different PLC in the US and Japan (Vignali, 2001:103). THE MARKETING MIX:CASE OF MCDONALDS The concept of marketing mix, the 4Ps, the product, the price, the promotion and the place has been formulated by McCarthy (1975) as extracted by Vignali (2001:97-111) and for many years the marketing plans of enormous companies have been established according to this concept but in 1996 Fifield and Gilligan added- process, physical and people as major aspects of marketing mix and make it to 7Ps of marketing which includes the following: (Vignali 2001:97-111) Product- features, quality and quantity. Place- location and number of outlets. Price- strategy, determinants and levels. Promotion- advertising, sales promotion and public relations. People- quantity, quality, training and promotion. Process- blueprinting, automation and control procedures. Physical- cleanliness, decor and ambience of the service. The following case study of McDonalds advocates that how it has achieved a competitive advantage in the market of Saudia Arabia and how it has implemented its international marketing mix. The marketing mix of McDonalds will be examined according to the above mentioned 7Ps. OVERVIEW OF MCDONALDS: McDonalds was founded in 1937 by the two brothers called Richard McDonald and Maurice McDonald in Pasadena, California. They introduced for the first time the drive-in restaurant techniques. Later on, Ray Kroc after seeing an opportunity in this business offered a McDonalds franchise for $950. In 1961, the McDonalds brothers sold it for $2.7 million. In 1967, the first international venture of McDonalds took place in Canada. Right after that, George Cohon after buying the licence of McDonalds opened his first restaurant in 1968 and ended up in building a network of 640 restaurants. Franchising has been the key of international success for McDonalds. McDonalds now operating in more than 100 countries with over 20,000 restaurants of which most of them are franchises (Vignali, 2001:97-111). In 1993, Riyadh International Catering Corporation (RICC) acquired the McDonalds franchise by which the 100% Saudi company owns and operates all McDonalds restaurants in the Central, Eastern and Northern regions of the Kingdom. Since establishing the first restaurant in Al Riyadh, RICC (McDonalds KSA) has been an active player in the local community and a solid supporter of its economy; sourcing around 80% of its supplies from local and regional suppliers in the Arab world. Recognizing the strength of the Saudi manpower, and translating its commitment towards the local community, RICC strived hard to increase the number of Saudi employees in its workforce. Today, the company is proud that around 25% of its employees are Saudi nationals ( PRODUCT: McDonalds is among those organisations which has successfully implemented both the global and local marketing strategy in terms of their products. That is, by keeping standardised procedures in producing their products all over the world, while only changing or adapting the contents of the products according to the countries in which it is operating. Irrespective of variations and recent additions, the structure of the McDonalds menu remains essentially uniforms the world over: main course burger/sandwich, fries and drink, however, the contents of the burger may vary according to the scenarios in which they are operating. The thin and elongated fries cut from russet potatoes is the signature feature of McDonalds which is consumed all over the world irrespective of any religious belief or political views (Vignali, 2001:97-111). The main aim of McDonalds is to create products which has standardised or uniformed taste all over the world, but there are times when McDonalds also adapted and changed its items because of religious laws, customs and rituals (Vignali, 2001:97-111). For instance, McDonalds operating in Saudia Arabia has adjusted their menus according to the local religious laws and customs. Like, McArabi Chicken Burger has been introduced, which suits the tastes of the people living in Saudia Arabia. In addition to it, McDonalds KSA, as well as McDonalds across all the Middle East countries served only 100% pure Halal prime cut beef and 100% pure Halal chicken from chicken breast meat with no additives and no fillers. McDonalds also serves the highest quality fries that are Halal and cooked only in 100% vegetable oil without any additives or flavours. Moreover, the Halal certificates which prevail in their market for McDonalds are called Braslo Beef, Braslo Chicken and Lamb Weston Fries (www.mcdonal Quality, since McDonalds has prevailed in every market with a similar aim that is the standardisation of its procedures, therefore, to maintain that regular inspections takes place either announced or unannounced in order to check the procedures according to different dimensions including the right quantity of contents to be used. This is a global practice of McDonalds which it has remarkably maintained all over the world and over a number of years (Vignali, 2001:97-111). Similarly, in Saudia Arabia it has launched the Open Door program as part of its initiatives that aim at educating customers about its food quality. The program offers the public the opportunity to tour McDonalds kitchen and take a close look at the high quality, safety and cleanliness measures that are implemented while preparing McDonalds food with an aim of High Quality Is Our Standard ( Nutrition, all McDonalds meals are rich with the various nutrients needed by your body including proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineralsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc. In addition, McDonalds Happy Meals provide a great nutrient package for kids. The meals are an excellent or good source of nine or more nutrients, depending on which Happy Meal combination you choose. These include: Protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, and C, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and copper. The nutrient values available on our tray liners and on our nutrition booklets are transparently provided to assist our customers with their selections at McDonalds restaurants in Saudia Arabia. ( Products Calories Total Fat (g) Carbohydrates (g) Protein (g) Beefburger 254 9 31 13 Cheeseburger 299 13 31 16 Quarter Pounder with Cheese 530 30 38 28 Big Mac 500 26 42 26 McRoyale 540 31 <