Thursday, November 28, 2019

Capital Punishment Essays (1690 words) - Human Rights,

Capital Punishment Capital Punishment: An Eye For An Eye? In the United States, the use of the death penalty continues to be a controversial issue. Every election year, politicians, wishing to appeal to the moral sentiments of voters, routinely compete with each other as to who will be toughest in extending the death penalty to those persons who have been convicted of first-degree murder. Both proponents and opponents of capital punishment present compelling arguments to support their claims. Often their arguments are made on different interpretations of what is moral in a just society. In this essay, I intend to present major arguments of those who support the death penalty and those who are opposed to state sanctioned executions. I do not pretend to be neutral on the issue; the application of the death penalty is the ultimate and irreversible sanction. However, I do intend to fairly and accurately represent both sides of the argument. Proponents of capital punishment persuasively argue that a central principle of a just society is that every person has an equal right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (Cauthen, p 1). Within this principle, the deliberate (premeditated) murder of an individual is viewed as a heinous act, which prevents the person from realizing his or her right to pursue happiness. They strongly feel that persons convicted of first-degree murder must, themselves, pay the ultimate price. They claim that the death penalty must be imposed in order to maintain the moral standards of the community. Proponents of capital punishment are aware that many people who oppose the death penalty are fearful that innocent people may be wrongfully executed. They insist, however, that numerous safeguards are built into the criminal justice system which insures the protection of those facing capital punishment. Among the safeguards are: 1. Capital punishment may be imposed only for a crime for which the death penalty is prescribe by law at the time of its commission. 2. Persons below eighteen years of age, pregnant women, new mothers or persons who have become insane shall not be sentenced to death. 3. Capital punishment may be imposed only when guilt is determined by clear and convincing evidence leaving no room for an alternative explanation of the facts. 4. Capital punishment may be carried out only after a final judgment rendered by a competent court allowing all possible safeguards to the defendant, including adequate legal assistance. 5. Anyone sentenced to death shall receive the right to appeal to a court of higher jurisdiction. 6. Capital punishment shall not be carried out pending any appeal, recourse procedure or proceeding relating to pardon or commutation of the sentenced. (www. 1) In view of these safeguards, proponents of capital punishment believe that state executions are justified sentences for those convicted of willful first-degree murder. They do not think sentencing murderers to prison is a harsh enough sentence, especially if there is the possibility of parole for the perpetrator. A final argument posed by proponents of the death penalty is that execution is an effective deterrence. They are convinced that potential murderers will likely think twice before they commit murder. Despite the rhetoric of politicians for the increased use of the death penalty, a number of prominent individuals and organizations have emerged to express their opposition to capital punishment. Along with families of death row prisoners, the International Court of The Hague, the United Nations, Amnesty International, the Texas Conference of Churches, Pope John Paul II, Nobel Peace recipient, Bishop Tutu, numerous judges and former prosecutors, former Attorney General, Ramsey Clark, actors, and writers are waging a determined struggle against the death penalty. They invariably argue that capital punishment is wrong and inhumane. Religious folk generally evoke the nature of an ideal spiritual community (Cauthen, 1). Within this perspective, a moral and ethical community does not insist on a life for a life. While a community must act to protect law- abiding citizens, an ethical response would be to imprison persons who have demonstrated a flagrant disrespect for life, without the pos sibility of parole, if necessary. Cauthen states, An ideal community would show mercy even to those who had shown no mercy (Capital Punishment 2). Most opponents of the death penalty

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Election of Byron Looper and Tommy Burks essays

The Election of Byron Looper and Tommy Burks essays In 1998, an election for state Senate ended up being the worst election that Tennessee had ever witnessed. Throughout the years, this election is the one that everyone will remember for a long time. Going through an election can be very stressful and hard, but nothing could give someone a reason to murder another person, to win an election. In 1998, there were many candidates running for election in October. One of the most popular elections that were going on at this time was the state senate. Two men by the names of Tommy Burks and Byron Looper were both in the race. Byron Looper was forty-seven years old with a wife and two kids. This was the first election he had ever run for, dealing with the state senate. At the age of fifty-eight, Tommy Burks served four terms in the state House of Representatives before being elected to the Senate in 1978 (Thompson 2). He was running for re-election to the Senate in the 1998 election. Senator Burks was respected for his honesty and hard wor k, both in his farming operation and his work in the state legislature. He was a 1963 graduate of Tennessee Technological University and had been honored by the University with awards. Tommy Burks also served as a director of the TTU Agriculture Foundation (Thompson 2). On October 19, 1998 State Senator Tommy Burks was murdered on a road on his farm just east of Monterey, TN., preparing to take a local school children on a field trip to his pumpkin patch (Fleming 1). Thus showing Tennessee how he cared about kids in the community and his love for his occupation. Tommy Burks, a longtime state legislator, was a farmer and was on his way to his barn, traveling along a road near the section of the large farm Where his daughter, Kim Blaylock, lives when he was shot to death. Senator Tommy Burks was found sitting in his Pickup truck on the road to the barn (Fleming 1). News agencies were reporting that Burks was shot twice, one in the chest, the other, i...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Company Law for Accounts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

The Company Law for Accounts - Essay Example In case a promoter makes a profit secretly, the company may commence a legal action for rescission or recovery of the profits made secretly. This promoter is assumed to have executed without utmost good faith. This means that disclosure of their activities is the most important issue and they must work within the objectives of the promoters and must use their skills knowledge for the best of the firm (Siddharthacadey, 2010).A promoter is any person involved in the planning to incorporate or initiate a running of a company, other than persons involved in a purely professional capacity. A promoter need not necessarily be the main person behind the incorporation, but he must have some executive function. The stereotype of a company and sells his business to it is a promoter. A promoter has a fiduciary duty to the company he is forming and this requires him to disclose all profits he makes during the promotion of the company...The courts have established the principle that a promoter stands in a fiduciary relationship with the company, which he is forming. This does not mean that he is barred from making a profit out of the promotion. It means that any profit made must be disclosed to the company. Breach of promoters’ duty If a promoter makes a profit and fails to disclose he breaches his duty of fiduciary. In the event of non- disclosure of profits the company may commence proceedings for rescission or for recovery of the undisclosed profits. The case study The case at hand is that Candy received a gift that he did not disclose to the other promoters. Therefore, he should be compelled to rescind the property to the company. The law prohibits individuals from unjustly enriching themselves at the expense of other partners. The other party should be compensated adequately to act as consideration. However, it should be noted that not all instances that parties are required to make compensated. In the case of unformed company the promoter is required to disclose rather compensate. In contract law, the pre-incorporation contracts are not enforceable, but the benefit accruing from it is disclosable. Being the fiduciary person Candy had certain legal obligations to fulfil towards the beneficiary. However, the very moment the Candy has taken a wrong approach of lying company, the bond of fiduciary relationship has been violated. This was confirmed in the case of Gluckstein v Barnes [1900]. In the case promoters had made profits before incorporation but they failed to disclose this fact. In their case, they misrepresented facts in prospectus that they were to buy a property at certain amount which they were unable to raise.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Corporate Finance ------ Analytical report Essay

Corporate Finance ------ Analytical report - Essay Example Let's begin by taking a closer look at the board of governors and what its members do. Together, management and the board of governors have the ultimate goal of maximizing shareholder value. In theory, management looks after the day-to-day operations, and the board ensures that shareholders are adequately represented. But the reality is that many boards are made up of management. The company Adobe Systems Inc., has a good balance between internal and external board members. Other good signs within Adobe Systems are the separation of CEO and chairman roles and an assortment of professional expertise of the board from accountant, attorney and executives. It's boards comprised of the current CEO (who is chairman), the CFO and the COO, along with the retired CEO, etc. This does not necessarily signal that the company is a bad investment, but, as a shareholder, it should question whether or not such a corporate structure is in shareholder best interests. The interaction between Financial Markets and Corporate Governance Corporate governance is merely one feature of the superior framework of macroeconomic policies, global capital, products and labour markets, competition, cultural norms, ethics, tax policy and diverse state regulatory systems. The expansion of global capital markets has shaped the potential for superior access to a bigger investor pool. However, the prime attraction of long-term patient capital, if it is domestic or international, the ability to offer corporate governance systems that are clearly expressed within regulatory and legal frameworks that support contractual and ownership rights. The importance of global capital markets and the governance debate continues to a purely property based regime with private property by which resources are used efficiently in our society. Global Financial markets focuses on the need to protect those property rights under vastly differing legal and political regimes, correlating shareholder protection and developed external capital markets. Capital markets are key to economic development. Economies, particularly in those nation states that are emerging or transitional, need foreign capital to make the investments necessary to generate wealth. Developed market economies also require additional capital to meet product and other market changes, and to ensure that they are globally competitive. Transparency of Corporate Governance Norms Provide Market Information Accounting principles differ from country to country, with differences often reflecting varying business practices, reporting practices and disclosure preferences. For corporate governance to be effective, official regulation of public disclosure will produce company information that is accurate, complete and timely. Interestingly and transparency of corporate governance norms are widely accepted capital market requirement. Disclosure and transparency requirements allow shareholders to monitor the use of their equity capital, enhancing board accountability mechanisms. Institutional investors such as pension funds are increasingly likely to use these transparency guarantees

Monday, November 18, 2019

A grammar test to an intermediate level Assignment

A grammar test to an intermediate level - Assignment Example For a longtime teachers have had a hard time trying to determine whether their students have grasped the various learning concepts tests were therefore introduced to enable teachers asses the learning levels of their students (Harmer 2007, Pg 2). Prior to any testing exercise, teachers often put many factors into consideration, such, may include the age of the students, the topics covered under study. One of the importances of testing the intermediate students English language levels is that it helps the teacher make various decisions regarding the teaching models to use.   Teachers have various styles of teaching and such may affect the students understanding of the given topic (Hughes 1989, pg 15).   The testing therefore enables teachers to tailor their teaching styles to fit the students that are being taught. In the face of ever changing English and language developments, the testing of students gives them exposure to these changes. Students at intermediate levels may not ha ve so much grasp and command of the English language, however, through testing the teachers may introduce elements that will be suitable for their learning (Yule, 2000 Pg 17). Therefore, testing of this kind allows the teacher to determine what the learners ought to know and the various changes that are talking place in the English language. Through testing, the teacher will be able to know the various interests of the learners especially in regards to the learning styles applicable in teaching them.   For instances students that are convergers.... Prior to any testing exercise, teachers often put many factors into consideration, such, may include the age of the students, the topics covered under study. One of the importances of testing the intermediate students English language levels is that it helps the teacher make various decisions regarding the teaching models to use. Teachers have various styles of teaching and such may affect the students understanding of the given topic (Hughes 1989, pg 15). The testing therefore enables teachers to tailor their teaching styles to fit the students that are being taught. In the face of ever changing English and language developments, the testing of students gives them exposure to these changes. Students at intermediate levels may not have so much grasp and command of the English language, however, through testing the teachers may introduce elements that will be suitable for their learning (Yule, 2000 Pg 17). Therefore, testing of this kind allows the teacher to determine what the learne rs ought to know and the various changes that are talking place in the English language. Through testing, the teacher will be able to know the various interests of the learners especially in regards to the learning styles applicable in teaching them. For instances students that are convergers are often solitary and may not like learning in the same environment as the others (Yule, 2000 Pg 17). Through this the teacher will be in a position to identify the conformist students who have preference to studying the language rather than using the language. Others like concrete learners and the communicative learners will also be identified and the teacher will come up with various teaching models that are suitable for them. Having knowledge on the type of students in your

Friday, November 15, 2019

Marketing Essays Starbucks Coffee

Marketing Essays Starbucks Coffee Starbucks Coffee Starbucks Coffee company is headquartered in Seattle, Washington. It began in 1971 with just one retail store at Seattles historic Pike Place Market. Now it has become the leading brand and retailer in the world. Starbucks went public on June 26, 1992. The main aim of Starbucks is to become the leading brand and retailer of finest coffee in each of its target markets nationally and internationally by selling the best quality coffee and related products, and by providing high class customer service. Starbucks purchases and roasts a high quality whole bean coffees to sell them with fresh, rich-brewed espresso beverages, different varieties of pastries and coffee related accessories and equipments ( Moreover Starbucks also sells coffee and tea products strategically through other channels such as supermarkets and non traditional retail channels such as United Airlines, Marriott International, Barnes Noble bookstores and Department stores. More than quality coffee, Starbucks features a variety of hand-crafted beverages, pastries and in some markets, a selection of sandwiches and salads. Starbucks merchandise includes exclusive espresso machines and coffee brewers, unique confections and other items related to coffee and tea. Some of the Starbucks products are as follows; Beverages: Brewed coffees, Italian-style espresso, cold blended beverages, roasted whole bean coffees, tea products, fruit juice, sodas, and coffee liqueur. Food: Sandwich, Salads, pastries and ice creams Non food items: Mugs, Travel tumblers, coffeemakers, coffee grinders, storage containers, compact discs, games, seasonal novelty items, Starbucks card, media bar. Starbuckss main mission is to be a global company. In order to achieve this it needs, the development strategy that Starbucks implemented to adapt with variety market and local need are: joint ventures, licenses and company owned operation. The total number of Starbucks stores are 15,011 which are operated and 3,891 are licensed operation in US which are spread out in 50 states. For the international location, Starbucks’ store can be found in 44 countries outside of the United States and 1,049 stores are company owned operated in Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Singapore, Thailand and the U.K. and 6,506 are joint ventures and licensed operation. Internationally Starbucks opened their stores in the following countries; Starbucks open in Tokyo, Japan. Nowadays, there are more than 700 retails shops in Japan. Furthermore, Starbucks also open in Hawaii and Singapore. Starbucks open in Philippines Starbucks open in U.K., Taiwan, Thailand, New Zealand and Malaysia. Starbucks open in Beijing, Kuwait, South Korea and Lebanon. Starbucks open in United Arab Emirates, Shanghai, Australia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Starbucks open in Switzerland and Austria. Starbucks open in Oman, Germany, Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Southern China, Macao and Shenzhen, Greece and Indonesia. Starbucks open in Turkey, Peru, Chile and Cyprus. Expansion to France The latest expansion in Jordan 5 Ps for Starbucks Coffee Company Starbucks is not just a good cup of fresh coffee, but a better quality product, excellent customer service and better understanding of coffee culture. Starbucks has so far achieved unpredictable achievements in coffee chain industry. Now we will go through the strategies of 5 Ps, price, product, place, promotion and people. Price: The Starbucks prices continuously matches with its competitors competitively represents Starbucks an attractive combination of features, high quality, excellent service and other attractive attributes. Product: Starbucks is known very well in the market due to its high quality coffee, care in selection and expertise in roast. It purchases coffees that have been grown and processed which meets strict environmental, economical, social and quality standards, which is suitable appropriate for the market and the customers. Starbucks establishes its longer lasting and more profitable competitive advantages by broadly differentiating its coffee and coffee related products depending upon its competence and innovation. Place: The decisions of Starbucks about where to site its stores depends on reaching its potential customers and providing better service to its existing customers. Its stores are typically clustered in high-traffic, high visibility locations. When it opens a new store near an established Starbucks, it is generally intended to relieve long customer lines and improve service. It takes more than just location to be successful. Attracting customers to Starbucks happens by providing high-quality coffee as well as creating inviting, comfortable places located in convenient location. The store expansion strategy for Starbucks is by entering new markets wherever the opportunity exists to become the leading specialty coffee retailer. Its current location totals 8,505 worldwide by the year 2007. Promotion: There is not much conventional advertising because Starbucks found that there is too much competition for consumers attention in TV, radio and print media. Starbucks usually picks one or two charities or events that reach the community it serves. This will inspire people inside and outside the company and reinforce the companys value and image. For instance, after September 11, stores in New York, Washington D.C and Pennsylvania brewed coffee free of cost for relief workers. People: One of the strategy of Starbucks is to believe that the Company is in the people development business as well as in the coffee business. As stated in its mission Provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity, Starbucks realizes that one of the most important resources contributing to success is their employees or partners as referred by the Company. Starbucks is attempting to imbed its values in the Company culture. They use these values to give employees a sense of meaning to their work even if it is just pouring a cup of coffee. The coffee chain provides medical, dental and vision coverage to all employees, even including part-timers. The part- time partners are also eligible for the companys stock program. The purpose is to instill in its partners a sense of purpose, commitment, loyalty and enthusiasm. Expectedly, what Starbucks benefits are the reduced recruiting and training costs. Get help with your essay from our expert essay writers ‘PESTLE’ Analysis for Starbucks Coffee Company Political: High taxation imposed on farmers in those countries producing the coffee bean will usually mean Starbucks pay a higher price for the coffee they purchase. Any fluctuations in taxation levels in the industry are almost certainly ultimately passed on to the consumer. Trade issues will affect Starbucks predominantly when exporting and importing goods. When another country’s government imposes a tariff it not only results in an efficiency loss for Starbucks but large income transfers can become inconsistent with equity. This extra charge can turn a bargain into a rip-off. Also, since 9/11, trade relations have been adversely affected between the USA and some other countries. Starbucks should thoroughly investigate the political stability of any country they plan to expand to. Changes in government can lead to changes in taxation and legislation. The American elections may have an effect on Starbucks as new legislation or new or existing government may bring in taxes. Also, those countries in political turmoil or civil war (e.g. Zimbabwe at present) should be approached with great caution when considering new ventures. The international economy must be brought into consideration as it can affect Starbucks’ sales and markets. The aftermath of 9/11 was an example of an economic downturn that affected the world market. A reduction in licensing and permit costs in those countries producing the coffee bean for Starbucks would lower production costs for farmers. This saving would in turn be passed on to the purchaser. Economic: A rise in interest rates means investment and expansion plans are put off resulting in falling sales for Starbucks and their suppliers. Also mortgage repayments rise so consumers have less disposable income to spend on luxury products such as coffee. Low interest rates will have the opposite effect of it. If growth is low in the nation of location of Starbucks then sales may also fall. Consumer incomes tend to fall in periods of negative growth leaving less disposable income. Consumer confidence in products can also fall if the economic situation is bad. Competitive pricing from competitors can start a price war for Starbucks that can drive down profits and profit margins as they attempt to increase, or at least maintain, their share of the market. Globalisation of the coffee market has meant farmers of the bean now earn less money than they used to. This can result in a decrease of people willing to do it for a living, which will mean a decrease in coffee produced, resulting in a drop in Starbucks supply levels and probably profits. Starbucks are affected by exchange rates when dealing with international trade. If the value of the currency falls in the country of a coffee supplier this enables Starbucks to get more for their $ or  £ when importing the goods to their country. This saving can be passed along to the customer. Exchange rates are forever changing throughout the world in today’s market. Social: Where income is distributed is another factor that Starbucks should look at as this also demonstrates the ideal place to aim their marketing or to locate their stores. Coffee is more of a luxury product so it is those people/places with the most amount of disposable income to spend that should be targeted the most intensely. Starbucks would not want to locate to an area where the local population have a poor attitude to work. Recruitment would be difficult, training arduous, and staff turnover would be high. Attitudes to work are important in other ways. Transport needs to the premises must be considered for both staff and customers. Easy access is vital to ensure there is no excuse for staff to arrive late or for customers not to visit. Research shows the average age of the population is getting older and birth rates are stagnating. Starbucks is presently aiming it’s product at young people but maybe these views will change in the long-term as the market proportion for young people diminishes. The most profitable way forward may be to widen their target market despite the risk of alienating present customers. Technological: Developments in the technology of coffee making machines and the computers that Starbucks use to run their cash registers will enable their staff to work more quickly and efficiently. This will result in customers being served quicker and create the potential to serve more customers in a day. In the short-term, Starbucks must identify the most efficient software upgrades to use to keep up with the competition. This applies to the improving the accessibility of their website ( and also improving the speed and quality of the service provided on the shop floor. As a multi-national business empire, Starbucks has the budget and the resources to have a cutting-edge RD department. The website is very accessible, the facilities are state of the art but more importantly new ideas are consistently being tried in terms of a constantly updating menu. The rate of technological change in the current world market is high, much higher than, say, thirty years ago. Much of this is down to the Internet and the speed with which information can be communicated around the globe. Starbucks will need to invest heavily just to stand still in their ever expanding and developing market, and even more so to try to stay ahead of competitors. Legal: Starbucks need to be aware of the trade laws in the various countries they occupy and do business with. They need to ensure they are not in violation of e.g., religious laws. Also, certain countries impose a tariff that has to be paid when goods are imported/exported so this must be taken into account. Each country has varying employment laws. Some may have a Sabbath day, some may have a limit on the number of hours an employee may work per week, and all will have varying levels of minimum wage. Starbucks should consider these factors when deciding on relocation. Starbucks may have to abide by local planning regulations when building shops or altering purchased sites, as certain areas of land may be protected or unsuitable. All matters would be addressed by the local government. Environmental: Starbucks customers create a lot of waste as they often leave the shop with their cup of coffee and then dispose of it in the street. The packaging for this cup must be carefully considered to make it as biologically degradable as possible. Certain other materials can be very harmful to the natural environment. Planning permission may not be granted if Starbucks wish to build in an area that could be harmful to the environment. The land may be protected. Starbucks need to carefully consider the methods in which they dispose of their waste as there are strict laws in most countries to ensure a firm trading in their country disposes of the waste that is created in their business in a specific and efficient way. Starbucks should be aware of the physical and influential power of groups such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. Find out how our expert essay writers can help you with your work ‘SWOT’ Analysis for Starbucks Coffee Company Strength: Strong brand name and image The reputation of brand name and image of Starbucks allow brand recognition and consumer retention. Therefore, the expanding of stores to other countries is more proficient and easier. Healthy financial performance The financial performance of company has positive aspects. The revenues of Starbucks in 2007 were $9.411 billion, growing at about 30 percent. The exponential growth in revenue and profit creates the strong financial statement and reliability to shareholders. High-skilled management team Starbucks has highly skilled and professional Chief executive officers (CEOs), for example, Howard Schultz, Orin Smith and Howard Behar. These lead to the rapid and stable growth of Starbucks. High technology Starbucks brings the technology to use in the stores in order to attract more customers. For instance, there are high-speed internet, website and prepaid Starbucks card. It might be increase traffic in the stores particularly in new generation group. High quality and innovation of products Starbucks uses high quality of coffee beans and dairy goods. Furthermore, new products are usually introduced by Starbucks including coffee and beverage line. Both of them enable Starbucks to be able to maintain level of sales and keep competitors out. Weakness: High price Starbucks has increased the price due to rising cost of production, including cost of dairy goods and cost of rent. The increase of price might have an effect on the falling of sales and customer retention directly Clusters of store Because Starbucks has a lot of stores and also these are located in closed areas, it leads to the scramble of customers in each store. Clusters of store might cause inefficient performance of the company. Opportunities: Large consumer group China has the biggest world’s population. Coffee drinking is more popular among young generation, especially those who have overseas education, which influences the coffee consumption. Many of these teenagers have lived in western countries for a long time and they have familiar with the coffee culture. When returning to China they have carried on living in this fashion. Chinese teenagers also like to choose western style coffee shops as their favorite place. Lifestyle Modern lifestyle of Chinese teenagers and adults supports the proliferation of western coffee shops. Meeting and discussing business in a warm and nicely designed coffee shop have become more popular in China. Consequently, the teahouse’s domination has been challenged by the foreign coffee house. Threats: Competitors The global coffee market is a very competitive sector. Starbucks is facing the increase of competitions from other foreign players. The latest Starbucks’ competitor is Canadian chain Blenz Coffee, which plans to open a string of cafà © in China where consumers can smoke, while Starbucks is non smoke stores. Intellectual-property violation Starbucks filed a lawsuit for trademark infringement against Shanghai Xingbake which signs, logos and names similar to Starbucks. It would seem that chances of consumer confusion are high. Porters Five Forces Analysis Porter’s five forces analysis is an important tool for analyzing an organizations industry structure in strategic processes. It helps the marketer to contrast a competitive environment. It tends to focus on the single, stand alone, business or SBU (Strategic Business Unit) rather than a single product or range of products. Porter has identified five competitive forces that shape every industry and every market. These are: The threat of entry, The power of buyers, The power of suppliers, The threat of substitutes and Competitive rivalry. The threat of entry: The threat of entry covers: Economies of scale, The high or low cost of entry, Ease of access to distribution channels, Cost advantages not related to the size of the company, Whether competitors will retaliate? Government action and How important differentiation is. There will always be a continuous pressure for Starbucks to react and adjust to these new entrants. The easier it is for new entrants to enter the market the more competition there is within the market. Although this really should not pose too much of a problem for Starbucks as they have a very large share of the market that will be relatively immune to the threat of new entrants. Starbucks is a company that have years of experience in roasting specialised coffee, if a company was to enter the coffee industry it would be extremely difficult for them to offer the same quality of coffee at a competitive price. As a company’s volume increases, so does its experience and knowledge which tends to decrease the cost of their products The power of buyers: Buyer power is likely to be high if a number of conditions are in place. There is a concentration of buyers, particularly if the volumes of purchases of the buyers are high, the supplying industry comprises a large number of small operators, there are alternative sources of supply, the component or material cost is a high percentage of total cost, the cost of switching a supplier is low or involves little risk, there is a threat of backward integration by the buyer. This is high where there a few, large players in a market If there are a large number of undifferentiated, small suppliers The cost of switching between suppliers is low for Starbucks. The power of suppliers: If the market is dominated by few large suppliers rather than numerous fragmented sources, a suppliers bargaining power is likely to be high. Although suppliers do have certain amounts of power, it is limited. With Starbucks being ‘the most famous specialty coffee shop chain in the world’ and still expanding they should still be requiring coffee beans for some time. It is safe to say that the Suppliers need Starbucks, just as much, if not more so than Starbucks need their supplies. Fortunately for Starbucks they buy their coffee beans directly from producing countries: Latin America (50%), Pacific Rim (35%) and East Africa (15%). The threat of substitutes: This occurs where there is product-for-product substitution, where there is a substitution of need e.g. a bald head reduces the need for hair gel, where there is generic substitution and finally the attitude ‘we could always do without. An example for Starbucks would be if an alternative to coffee was offered e.g. a customer switching from coffee to tea. Competitive rivalary: Numerous factors contribute to intense rivalry between existing competitors in an industry. This is most likely to be high where entry is likely; there is the threat of substitute products, and suppliers and buyers in the market attempt to control. This is why it is found in the centre of the diagram. The extent to which competitors are in balance, this is where competitors are of an equal size which creates intense competition as one of the competitors tries to gain dominance over the other, high fixed costs in an industry may result in price wars, differentiation is important as in a commodity market where products or services are undifferentiated there is little to stop customers switching between competitors. Starbucks do not really have any competitive rivals that are of similar size to them so there are not any rivals in the market that would be considered in balance with them. However, they must maintain their excellent standards and always be on the lookout for new innovation s in order to stay as the market leader. Competitor Analysis Competition is steadily growing against Starbucks each year as the industry grows. Competitors look to gain an advantage by price cuts, launching a rival product, aggressive expansion of production to increase market share or inclusion of significant modifications to a product that other competitors must also undertake to keep up. The following are the current figures showing the market share of companies in the coffee industry. 35% Starbucks 20% Local Coffee Outlets 14% Internet Cyber Cafes 13% Caffe Nero 10% Costa Coffee 8% Coffee Republic Culture Model The culture of an organisation is the set of values that helps its stakeholders understand what the organisation stands for, how it does things and what it considers important. Under culture model, we are going to explain the communication and decision making of Starbucks. The Organisation its environment (Source: Davidson, 2002 pg. 73 Figure 3.1 In the diagram (above), owner created the company objective for Starbucks and the boarder of directors is going to lead company to achieve that company objective. Therefore, the boarder of directors has to choose the suitable organisation culture environment for Starbucks in order to achieve the company objective. The Value System The value system is the inter-organisational links that are vital in the creation of the product or service of a company. It follows the production of the service/product from raw material stage right through to the customer purchase. Each instruction for the development of the product is detailed and explained at each stage of the value system. The ‘firm value chain’ is the most important to a manager because that is their company, however, a good manager will understand the whole process and how to manage each individual link and relationship to maximise customer value. Managers should also need to learn the whole value system because most of the cost and value creation occurs in the supply and distribution chains. For Starbucks, the ‘supplier value chain’ deals with where they get the coffee beans from that they use to create their end product – a cup of coffee. Starbucks buy all their beans direct from the farmers in the producing countries cutting out any middle-man therefore keeping prices to a minimum. The countries that supply them can be found in Latin America, East Africa and on the Pacific Rim. Starbucks fully appreciate the need to oversee all aspects of the value system and we can see an example of this in their determination to obtain the highly sought Narino Supremo crop in 1992. This acquisition ensured some of the highest quality coffee supplies in the world would be reaped by Starbucks. The company has close relationships with their coffee exporters. They maintain this by working directly with them and training them. A good relationship here is essential and needs to be maintained. The ‘firm’s value chain’ consists of: The Firm’s infrastructure; which is about the ways in which Starbucks want their organisation to run and how it is best to implement systems of planning, finance, quality control and information management, it is also where they have made the decision to make high quality coffee from the best coffee beans as this is involved with the quality control. Human Resource Management; It is concerned with the activities involved in recruiting, managing, training, developing and rewarding people within the organisation. For Starbucks this is where they have made decisions about the fact that all employees are equal, even those on the shop-floor that are working over 20 hours a week receive bonuses like free coffee and health care coverage, this was to make sure that the members of staff felt as if they were valued by the company and would continue to provide a good service. Another implemented scheme is for all Starbucks store staff to have a comprehensive 24 hour training scheme before they were allowed on to work directly with customers. Technology development; Starbucks has a large number of areas where it uses technology from regulating their stock levels to the cash registers. There is also technology to enable customers can to order their coffee over the internet and then pick it up from the store when they get there. Some stores now also contain computers where customers can access the internet. Procurement; this refers to the processes for acquiring the various resource inputs to the primary activities. For instance, the method of obtaining the grade A coffee beans from suppliers to use in the Starbucks coffee. Inbound logistics; For Starbucks this means receiving the coffee beans and other products that they need to make the products in their stores from their suppliers and storing these until they are used to make the product that they are going to sell. Operations; this is the stage where Starbucks make the coffee in the store and package the other subsidiary products. Outbound logistics; this is collection, storage and distribution of coffee. A customer actually purchasing a cup of Starbucks coffee from the store. Marketing and Sales; This is how consumers become aware of Starbucks coffee and purchase it. Starbucks is a worldwide company and their brand is recognised all over the world, which means that marketing is not as necessary as it once was. Most people now recognise the name and associate the brand-image with high quality products. Service; this includes all the activities that enhance or maintain the value of the product, e.g. installation, repair and training. This area is concerned with the members of staff that deal with the customers, it focuses on the need to ensure the ‘customer experience’ of visiting a Starbucks store is all the more enjoyable due to the friendliness and efficiency of staff and consistently high quality product on offer.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Pakistan :: essays research papers fc

Pakistan   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Pakistan is a country that, since its creation, has been rooted in turmoil. The recent years are no exception to this. Since 1988, power has been divided among the president, the prime minister and the military. Tensions between the three, however, have led to eight changes of government and three elections. No elected leader has ever completed a full term in office. Benazir Bhutto, who was dismissed by the president in August 1990 after only twenty-one months in office, is the only Pakistani leader to be given a second chance at ruling (Newberg 19). On October 6, 1993 a general election was held in Pakistan. The Pakistan People's Party (or PPP) received a majority of the vote and as a result Benazir Bhutto once again became prime minister. This time however, she has a pliant president in the form of an old friend. On November 13, 1993, Farooq Leghari was elected the country president. Yet even with this unique opportunity for agreement within the ruling circle reforms have not taken place (The Europa World Year Book 2460). Despite the PPP's success in the 1993 election they still faced uncertainty. They lack not only a parliamentary majority but unity within their own ranks. One of the biggest problems was a bitter family feud between Benazir Bhutto and her mother, Begum and brother, Murtaza. Murtaza had returned from exile to claim a seat in the Sind provincial assembly, but was immediately arrested for alleged terrorist activity. In late December 1993, Benazir removed her mother as PPP co-chair after she had endorsed Murtaza's claim that he was the rightful heir to his father's political legacy. However, in September 1994, the family feud seemed to end during a visit of the prime minister to her mother (Banks 717).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Pakistan the end of the cold war had not brought on new, pragmatic thinking on foreign policy that could make Pakistan less reliant on Western support and allow it to develop closer ties with its neighbors. After the cold war, many third world countries were abandoned by their protectorates- the U.S. or the former soviet Union. However Pakistan's elite has yet to fend for itself (Rashad 158). Pakistan's relations with India worsened. Since the creation of Pakistan, relations with India have dominated foreign affairs. These relations reflect a centuries old rivalry between Hindus and Muslims. The reason for the tensions today is allegations that each side was on the verge of conducting nuclear tests (Year Book 2462).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Much of Pakistan's problems stem from a legacy of rule by a small group of around 300 families. Through blood ties, marriage, and business, they have

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Comparing Fast Food Giants Burger King and McDonald’s

Burger King Versus McDonald’s Fast Food Franchises have raised many questions or debates that have risen because of obesity issues and health concerns in our society to this day. This has led me to compare Burger King and McDonald’s. Comparison of these two companies to see exactly what they have to offer and the fact that people seem to look at all fast food the same. It is all bad for you and causing health issues. Burger King and McDonald’s are the top two fast food chains and are known for serving unhealthy foods, but there are healthy choices available, as salads. As I have done my research to see if there are healthy options when we eat at these places. Truly comes down to whether it is us or the franchises making the wrong choices or whose fault it really is. Fast food franchises being all of the same or having differences amongst food options and services offered. Similarities Main thing appears to be a burger, fries, and a soft drink is what they are known for. Both of the franchises basically offer the same types of foods, combo meals, children meals, dollar menus, super sizes available, play lands and a drive thru for that fast service. Usually you can bet the food will taste the same each time you go, giving us the feeling of reliability. Whether you want to sit down as a family or eat on the go. Both of the companies keep the cost down to make it an affordable meal and giving us a variety to choose from. They both serve breakfast, lunch, and supper options. This is partially what makes it hard for us to say no. The convenience and time saving options really hit home to our busy schedules. Differences: Now even though they both seem to be basically the same, there are differences within these two franchises. One way that they are different is in the way they prepare and process their foods. At Burger King, they use a process where there is no human intervention while cooking their burgers. No one has to stand there and flip the burgers. This is saving time and providing employees to be available to keep moving and making meals more quickly. They also use a broiler, giving us that broiler taste. Where McDonald’s uses a basic grill style and someone has to be there constantly to turn and flip the burgers. Burger King has bigger and thicker burgers, providing more for your buck. They also have the option of onion rings instead of fries, and they are lower in calories than fries. When concerning their fries, they even have the option of no salt on them. This is an amazing option for those of us watching our sodium intake. The one thing that I was surprised with is that they provide Kraft macaroni and cheese and apple fries in the children’s meals, along with milk. The fries are still included, but for those parents who do not want them to have the fries, there is your other option. McDonald’s gives you a wider range of choices in desserts and salads. They offer 10 different types of salads, where Burger King only offers you 3 types of salads. Their happy meal is including a choice of low fat chocolate and white milk, fries along with apple slices. If you do not want your child to have fries, there’s the option of two packages of apple slices. They are attempting to offer a healthier choice for your children. Healthier choices If you want just the basic burger, fries, and a beverage, it really does not matter where you go; they both offer these and come down to the consumer’s taste buds. Basically either place you go, they both have begun to offer many healthy food options. It still is not the best choice, but you can choose something that will not cause so much weight gain. It is coming down to our choices on what we eat if we must go to a fast food restaurant. Some of the choices you can make: Have a salad with the dressing on the side, Burger King’s fries with not salt, have the condiments on the side or none, choose a burger with no bacon or cheese, have their oatmeal option with fruit on top, a veggie burger instead of meat, grilled instead of fried and have juice instead of soda. There are many things that we can choose to eat that will make our visit to these two places healthier. Both places provide brochures on the nutritional value on their meals, take time to check them out and see what you are eating. Burger King and McDonald’s are very similar in many ways, but do have differences. Just depending on what your taste buds are, if you want it made your way, or if you want a bigger burger. These will assist in determining to which company fits best to your desires. The salad option, McDonald’s is the way to go. They have best options in this category, but remember to go for the grilled instead of fried and have that dressing on the side. Just remember it is our choice to what we are putting in our body. References Associated Press. â€Å"McDonald's profit climbs 27 percent. † MSNBC. October 19, 2007. Retrieved November 26th 2011. Written by Associated Press on November 15, 2011 4:35 pm. http://newsone. com/author/associatedpress3/ Brandau, Mark (28 March 2011). â€Å"BK’s Chidsey to resign in April†. Nation's Restaurant news. Burger King Corporation. 2007, www. k. com, Retrieved November 26th 2011. Cordal, Ina Paiva; Walker, Elaine (28 October 2010). â€Å"Burger King Ousts top staff†. Miami Herald. 2010 10-K SEC Filing, Burger King Corporation, 30 June 2010, pp. 38-40. Hogan, David (1997). Selling 'em by the Sack: White Castle and the Creation of American Food. New York: New York University Press. Jakle, John A. ; Sculle, Keith A. ; Pappas (1999). Fast Food: Roa dside Restaurants in the Automobile Age (1st ed. ). JHU Press. pp. 116–117. ISBN  080186920X. â€Å"Mathew Burns of Long Beach, California, and Kieth g. Kramer, Burn's stepson and owner of a Daytona Beach, Florida drive in, founded Insta-Burger King, Burger King's predecessor. † Kroc, Ray and Anderson, Robert (1977). Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's. Chicago: Contemporary Books. Levinstein, Harvey (2003). Paradox of Plenty: a Social History of Eating in Modern America. Berkeley: University of California P, 2003. 228-229. Luxenberg, Stan (1985). Roadside Empires: How the Chains Franchised America. New York: Viking, 1985. Mcginley, Lou Ellen with Stephanie Spurr (2004). Honk for Service: A Man, A Tray and the Glory Days of the Drive-In Restaurant†. Tray Days Publishing. Schlosser, Eric (2005). â€Å"Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal† HarperCollins Publishers. www. chapters. indigo. ca/books/Fast-Food-Nation. Retrieved November 25th, 2011. Thottam, Jyoti (June 6, 2005). â€Å"Fast Food Face-Off. † Time Online Magazine. Read more at Suite101: Which Fast Food is Better: McDonalds o r Burger King? | Suite101. com http://tasha-kelley. suite101. com/which-fast-food-is-better–McDonald’s-or-burger-king

Friday, November 8, 2019

How to Teach the Future - ESL Education

How to Teach the Future - ESL Education Teaching the future in English is relatively simple in the beginning. Students understand the future with will and learn the form quickly. However, the problems begin when discussing the future with going to. The key issue is that the future with going to is logically a better fit when speaking about the future. The future with going to tells us about our plans, whereas the future with will is mainly used to discuss reactions that occur at the moment of speaking and speculation about the future. Of course, there are other uses, but this main issue leads to a lot of confusion among students. Choosing when to introduce the future with will and going to carefully can make all the difference in comprehension. It is recommended to delay introducing these forms until students are comfortable with some basic tenses. Start by Speaking about Plans and Hopes To help students become familiar with both forms, discuss your future plans as well as your thoughts about the future. This will ensure that you use both the future with will and going to. If you are teaching beginning level students, separating the two forms will help students understand the difference. If your students are intermediate level, mixing the forms can assist in teaching the fluidity between the forms in everyday usage. Beginners I have some predictions for next year. I think that you will all speak better English at the end of this course! Im sure I will have a vacation. However, I dont know where. Ill probably visit my parents in Seattle in the summer, and my wife will ... Intermediate Next year, Im going to take up the guitar. It will probably be very difficult for me, but I love music. My wife and are going to fly to New York in September to visit some friends. While were in New York, the weather will probably be good... In both cases, ask students to explain the function or purpose of the different forms. Help students understand that the future with will is used for making predictions, or what you think will happen. The future with going to, on the other hand, is used to state future intentions and plans. Future with 'Will' for Reactions Introduce the future with will for reactions by demonstrating various scenarios that call for reactions: John is hungry. Oh, Ill make him a sandwichLook its raining outside. OK, Ill take my umbrella.Peter doesnt understand the grammar. Ill help him with the exercise. Explaining Future Forms on the Board Use a future with will for promises and predictions timeline to illustrate the future used for speculating about the future. Contrast this timeline with future  with going to for intentions and a plans timeline to illustrate the difference between the two forms. Write positive sentences of both forms on the board and ask students to change the sentences into both questions and negative forms. Point out that will not becomes wont in most everyday use. Comprehension Activities Comprehension activities focusing on specific functions will help cement the understanding of differences between these two forms. For examples, a reading comprehension on the weather can help students use the future with will. This can be contrasted with a listening comprehension discussing future plans with going to. More extended dialogues and reading comprehensions can be used to mix the forms once students understand the differences between the forms. Quizzes asking to choose between future with will or going to also help to solidify understanding. Challenges with the Future As discussed above, the main challenge is in distinguishing between what is planned (going to) and what is a reaction or speculative (will). Add to that the fact that many native speakers mix the forms themselves, and you have a recipe for trouble. I find it helpful to boil teaching down to two questions: Was a decision made about this statement BEFORE the moment of speaking? - If yes, use going toAre you thinking about future possibilities? - If yes, use willIs this a reaction to what someone has said or done? - If yes, use will Not all uses of these two forms can be answered with these simple questions. However, raising students consciousness of these key points will help them become more accurate in their use of these two future forms.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on Red Convertible

The Cost of War Vietnam was a hell on earth for the solders that were forced to fight it. The solders that had a bad experience were traumatized beyond help. The story â€Å"The Red Convertible† was a story about a man named Henry that was sent to Vietnam and upon his return was never the same. Lyman, Henry’s younger brother, narrates the story and he was fortunate not to have to fight. Henry did not get enough support when he really needed it. When Henry came back from Vietnam he was traumatized. He never acted the same and his family never recognized him from before he left. His actions seem to be more hostile to everyone. Henry seemed always withdrawn and overly aggressive upon his return. Before he went into the service he had a good relationship with his brother and acted a little â€Å"loony†. The part of the story where they go on a road trip with their new convertible defines Henry’s personality. Henry and Lyman were driving around when they saw a girl named Susy walking along the road, on a whim they both decide to pick her up and give her a ride home. When they find out where she lives in Alaska they don’t care and they drive her home. They were both so carefree that they decided to go take her home. Henry and Lyman were so charismatic that Susy’s family took them in as their own. When Susy let down her hair and Henry held her up on his shoulders showed what a carefree and expressive p erson he was. Lyman seemed to have all the luck and that led to Henry’s resentment toward him. Lyman seemed to be a prodigy with making money. He was so good that he was able to own a restaurant at the age of 16. And he showed he good luck more by getting a good number on the draft where Henry got a bad one and so he signed up for the military. Henry’s hostility toward Lyman manifested by him not going through the same experience, and Henry not getting any help. Henry was unbalanced when he came back from the war. He didn... Free Essays on Red Convertible Free Essays on Red Convertible Unable to Cope in Erdrich’s â€Å"The Red Convertible† In the short story â€Å"The Red Convertible† Louise Erdrich writes about two brothers who were Chippewa Indians, living on a reservation in the 1970’s. Lyman, the youngest brother, reveals how an event in his older brothers life, Henry’s, turned him inside out, dwindled from the person he was. Lyman’s story is about how Henry changes, before the war Henry was out going, liked telling jokes and hanging out with his brother. After Henry comes home from being drafted into the Vietnam War; he doesn’t talk or laugh and is to himself, Lyman even destroys the car they shared, trying to bring his brother back. Henry worked at Jewel Bearing Plant before the layoff. He didn’t seam as lucky with money as his brother Lyman. â€Å"But Henry was never lucky in the same way as me.†(409) Lyman became owner of a restaurant at sixteen. â€Å"It wasn’t long before the whole thing was mine.†(407) Henry didn’t seam to have a problem with Lyman’s good fortune; he loved his brother, they did every thing together. Lyman and Henry bought a red convertible together and traveled all summer in it. Henry liked having fun and making people laugh. â€Å"Then my brother Henry did something funny†¦he started twirling, this way and that, so her hair was flung out from side to side. â€Å"I always wondered what it was like to have long pretty hair,† Henry says. (408) Henry liked to talk; he never met a stranger, â€Å"†¦talking to whoever sat with us†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (409) After three years of being a prisoner of war, Henry came home. â€Å"†¦Henry was different, and I’ll say this: the change was no good.† (409) Lyman knew that Henry would be different from the experiences he under went in the war, he didn’t know how deep the wounds ran in his brothers mind. The way Henry acted, never smiling or talking and always jumpy, unable to deal with everyday life; even his friends quite coming around. â€Å"†¦now y... Free Essays on Red Convertible The Cost of War Vietnam was a hell on earth for the solders that were forced to fight it. The solders that had a bad experience were traumatized beyond help. The story â€Å"The Red Convertible† was a story about a man named Henry that was sent to Vietnam and upon his return was never the same. Lyman, Henry’s younger brother, narrates the story and he was fortunate not to have to fight. Henry did not get enough support when he really needed it. When Henry came back from Vietnam he was traumatized. He never acted the same and his family never recognized him from before he left. His actions seem to be more hostile to everyone. Henry seemed always withdrawn and overly aggressive upon his return. Before he went into the service he had a good relationship with his brother and acted a little â€Å"loony†. The part of the story where they go on a road trip with their new convertible defines Henry’s personality. Henry and Lyman were driving around when they saw a girl named Susy walking along the road, on a whim they both decide to pick her up and give her a ride home. When they find out where she lives in Alaska they don’t care and they drive her home. They were both so carefree that they decided to go take her home. Henry and Lyman were so charismatic that Susy’s family took them in as their own. When Susy let down her hair and Henry held her up on his shoulders showed what a carefree and expressive p erson he was. Lyman seemed to have all the luck and that led to Henry’s resentment toward him. Lyman seemed to be a prodigy with making money. He was so good that he was able to own a restaurant at the age of 16. And he showed he good luck more by getting a good number on the draft where Henry got a bad one and so he signed up for the military. Henry’s hostility toward Lyman manifested by him not going through the same experience, and Henry not getting any help. Henry was unbalanced when he came back from the war. He didn...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Marketing transportation assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Marketing transportation assignment - Essay Example This process goes through a machine. The machine has three compartments. Bottles that come from the roll conveyor get into the machine for successive treatment. The bo0ttles are cleaned in the frost compartment with a small amount t of caustic soda at a temperature of 100 to 115 F. In the second compartment the bottles are again rewashed with a small amount of caustic soda at a temperature of to the third compartment, the bottles are rinsed again with sort ware for another ten minutes (Kachru, 693). In this place, syrup is prepared from filtered water, sugar and the concentrate. The room is filtered with several tanks where the first one is heating tank where syrup is actually prepared. Here the amount of sugar concentrate is heated up to 850 F where a saturated solution is made (Kachru, 693). The filled bottles are then crowned with plastic or metallic caps to protect the purity of the content .They are then branded with the necessary information by the help of laser machine for its supply in the market .the bottles are then lifted manually from the conveyor and packed. After all this process then the wholesalers take the beverages from the pepsin manufacturer and distribute it to the wholesaler (Kachru,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Strategic analysis of Acer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Strategic analysis of Acer - Essay Example Acer has since been the third largest computer manufacturing company in the world holding 9.5% of the market share, with its growth being experienced outside USA mature market, largely in emerging nations. The peripherals and PC industry is very competitive and Acer has maintained growth since 1999 with significant growth in revenues. The key competitors in the market include Dell, HP and Lenovo; however there is a fragmentation of the market with 46% of it owned by brands which have market share of less than 4% each. Acer seeks to increase its market share through release of premium PCs under Ferrari brand and expansion in LCD TVs with BenQ brand (Unruh & Ettenson, 2010). This paper seeks to give a detailed report of strategic analysis of Acer Inc. The paper will analyze the environment in which Acer functions and identify the opportunities and threats to which it might expect to have to respond. This will be done through environmental analysis (PESTLE, Porter’s Five Forces, and SWOT). The report will also make analyses of the resources and key capabilities of the company plus the factors that give the company its competitive advantage. This will be done through assessing the Industry Critical Success Factors, analyzing resources and capabilities and link the generic strategy. Finally the paper will assess the extent to which Acer’s existing strategies match its environment and suggest improvements where there is a justification. This will be done through looking at the company’s strategy within its environment and use of the J and S three tests (suitability, acceptability, feasibility and suggested improvements. There will be a final management summary, conclusion and recommendations to the company and sample diagrams of the models of market and environment analysis. Acer is the third largest manufacturer of electronics (PC) in the world using a transnational strategy for procuring its components in order to maintain cost leadership.